Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Delinquent behavior is common during adolescence and may disrupt trajectories of labor market attainment. Estimates of the relationship between delinquency and employment are threatened by selection bias, as youth who engage in delinquency often differ substantially from youth who do not. The current study examined the association between adolescents’ engagement in serious delinquency and four measures of occupational attainment in young adulthood: unemployment, personal earnings, employer-provided benefits, and occupational earnings. It examined the effect of delinquency independent of between-person differences in a variety of attributes and tested whether the hypothesized relationship was mediated by educational attainment, work experience, disconnectedness from both education and work, or criminal justice sanctioning. This study analyzed data from the first four waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), yielding an analytic sample of 14,800 (51% female, mean age 16 years). The Wave 1 Add Health survey was administered in 1994–1995, and Wave 4 of the survey was administered in 2007–2008. The analytic strategy, propensity score weighting, produced estimates that were less biased by differences between youth who had and who had not engaged in delinquent behavior. The study found that delinquency was significantly associated with the likelihood of being unemployed: compared to non-delinquents, delinquents were more likely to be unemployed even after controlling for temporally prior traits and resources, human capital, and criminal justice contact. The results provided more qualified support for hypothesized relationships between delinquency and job quality. The study concluded that offending may result in less fruitful job searches, but once a search results in employment, employed delinquents are not readily discernible from employed non-delinquents in the quality of their jobs. These conclusions contribute to literature on the labor market outcomes of people with histories of adolescent delinquency as they enter young adulthood.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Agnew, R., Brezina, T., Wright, J. P., & Cullen, F. T. (2002). Strain, personality traits, and delinquency: extending general strain theory. Criminology, 40(1), 43–72. CrossRef
Apel, R., & Sweeten, G. (2010). Propensity score matching in criminology and criminal justice. In Alex R.Piquero, David. Weisburd (eds.), In Handbook of quantitative criminology. (pp. 543–562). New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
Austin, P. C., & Stuart, E. A. (2015). Moving towards best practice when using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score to estimate causal treatment effects in observational studies. Statistics in Medicine, 34(28), 3661–3679. CrossRef
Bjerk, D. (2009). How much can we trust causal interpretations of fixed-effects estimators in the context of criminality? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25(4), 391–417. CrossRef
Brand, J. E., & Thomas, J. S. (2014). Causal effect heterogeneity. In Stephen L. Morgan (Ed.), Handbook of causal analysis for social research (pp. 189–213). New York, NY: Springer.
Buchmann, M., & Steinhoff, A. (2017). Social inequality, life course transitions, and adolescent development: introduction to the special issue. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(10), 2083–2090. CrossRef
Bynner, J., & Parsons, S. (2002). Social exclusion and the transition from school to work: the case of young people not in education, employment, or training (NEET). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60(2), 289–309. CrossRef
Caspi, A., Bem, D. J., & Elder, Jr., G. (1989). Continuities and consequences of interactional styles across the life course. Journal of Personality, 57(2), 375–406. CrossRef
Caspi, A., Entner Wright, B. R., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1998). Early failure in the labor market: childhood and adolescent predictors of unemployment in the transition to adulthood. American Sociological Review, 63(3), 424–451. CrossRef
Colman, I., Murray, J., Abbott, R. A., Maughan, B., Kuh, D., Croudace, T. J., & Jones, P. B. (2009). Outcomes of conduct problems in adolescence: 40 year follow-up of national cohort. British Medical Journal, 338(7688), 208–211.
Davies, S., & Tanner, J. (2003). The long arm of the law: effects of labeling on employment. The Sociological Quarterly, 44(3), 385–404. CrossRef
DuGoff, E. H., Schuler, M., & Stuart, E. A. (2014). Generalizing observational study results: applying propensity score methods to complex surveys. Health Services Research, 49(1), 284–303. CrossRef
Emsley, R., Lunt, M., Pickles, A., & Dunn, G. (2008). Implementing double-robust estimators of causal effects. The Stata Journal, 8(3), 334–353.
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Show me the child at seven: the consequences of conduct problems in childhood for psychosocial functioning in adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(8), 837–849. CrossRef
Gilman, A. B., Hill, K. G., & Hawkins, D. J. (2014). Long-term consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning. American Journal of Public Health, 104(5), 938–945. CrossRef
Gottfredson, M., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Guo, S., & Fraser, M. W. (2015). Propensity score analysis: statistical methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Hagan, J., & McCarthy, B. (1997). Mean streets: youth homelessness and crime. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Harris, K. M. (2009). The national longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health (Add Health), Waves I & II, 1994–1996; Wave III, 2001–2002; Wave IV, 2007-2009 [machine-readable data file and documentation]. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Jessor, R. (2018). Reflections on six decades of research on adolescent behavior and development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(3), 473–476. CrossRef
Kohler-Hausmann, I. (2013). Misdemeanor justice: control without conviction. American Journal of Sociology, 119(2), 351–393. CrossRef
Lageson, S. E. (2016). Found out and opting out: the consequences of online criminal records for families. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 665(1), 127–141. CrossRef
Lancetot, N., Cernkovich, S. A., & Giordano, P. C. (2007). Delinquent behavior, official delinquency, and gender: consequences for adult functioning and well-being. Criminology, 45(1), 131–157. CrossRef
Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mihalic, S. W., & Elliott, D. (1997). Short- and long-term consequences of adolescent work. Youth & Society, 28(4), 464–498. CrossRef
Mortimer, J. T., Pimentel, E. E., Ryu, S., Nash, K., & Lee, C. (1996). Part-time work and occupational value formation in adolescence. Social Forces, 74(4), 1405–1418. CrossRef
Nagin, D., & Paternoster, R. (2000). Population heterogeneity and state dependence: future research. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 16(2), 117–144. CrossRef
National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Employment and unemployment rates by educational attainment. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/pdf/coe_cbc.pdf
Nelson, D. (2004). Moving youth from risk to opportunity. The 2004 KIDS count data. Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation. http://www.aecf.org/kidscount
Osgood, D. W., McMorris, B. J., & Potenza, M. T. (2002). Analyzing multiple-item measures of crime and deviance i: item response theory scaling. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 267–296. CrossRef
Pager, D. (2007). Marked: race, crime, and finding work in an era of mass incarceration. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Paternoster, R., & Pogarsky, G. (2009). Rational choice, agency and thoughtfully reflective decision making: the short and long-term consequences of making good choices. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25(2), 103–127. CrossRef
Rodwell, L., Romaniuk, H., Nilsen, W., Carlin, J. B., Lee, K. J., & Patton, G. C. (2018). Adolescent mental health and behavioural predictors of being NEET: a prospective study of young adults not in employment, education, or training. Psychological Medicine, 48(5), 861–871. CrossRef
Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sampson, R. J., Laub, J. H., & Wimer, C. (2006). Does marriage reduce crime? A counterfactual approach to within-individual causal effects. Criminology, 44(3), 465–508. CrossRef
Schiraldi, V., Western, B., & Bradner, K. (2015). Community-based responses to justice-involved young adults. National Institute of Justice. Washington, DC.
Scott, E. S., & Steinberg, L. (2008). Adolescent development and the regulation of youth crime. The Future of Children, 18(2), 15–33. CrossRef
Simon, J. (2007). Governing through crime: how the war on crime transformed american democracy and created a culture of fear. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Staff, J., & Uggen, C. (2003). The fruits of good work: early work experiences and adolescent deviance. Journal of Research in Crimean and Delinquency, 40(3), 263–290. CrossRef
Staff, J., Schulenberg, J. E., & Bachman, J. G. (2010). Adolescent work intensity, school performance, and academic engagement. Sociology of Education, 83(3), 183–200. CrossRef
Sweeten, G., Bushway, S. D., & Paternoster, R. (2009). Does dropping out of school mean dropping into delinquency? Criminology, 47(1), 47–91. CrossRef
Tanner, J., Davies, S., & O’Grady, B. (1999). Whatever happened to yesterday’s rebels? longitudinal effects of youth delinquency on education and employment. Social Problems, 46(2), 250–274. CrossRef
Tomlinson, M., & Walker, R. (2010). Poverty, adolescent well-being and outcomes later in life. Journal of International Development, 22(8), 1162–1182. CrossRef
Torche, F. (2011). Is a college degree still the great equalizer? Intergenerational mobility across levels of schooling in the united states. American Journal of Sociology, 117(3), 763–807. CrossRef
von Hippel, P. T. (2007). Regression with missing Ys: an improved strategy for analyzing multiply imputed data. Sociological Methodology, 37(1), 83–117. CrossRef
Wakefield, S., & Uggen, C. (2010). Incarceration and stratification. Annual Review of Sociology, 36(1), 387–406. CrossRef
Western, B. (2006). Punishment and inequality in America. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Western, B., & Pettit, B. (2010). Incarceration & social inequality. Daedalus, 139(3), 8–19. CrossRef
White, I. R., Royston, P., & Wood, A. M. (2011). Multiple imputation using chained equations: issues and guidance for practice. Statistics in Medicine, 30(4), 377–99. CrossRef
- The Consequences of Adolescent Delinquent Behavior for Adult Employment Outcomes
- Springer US
Journal of Youth and Adolescence
A Multidisciplinary Research Publication
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601