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01-08-2015 | Brief Communication | Uitgave 8/2015

Quality of Life Research 8/2015

Validation of the Malay version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-41) in Malaysia

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 8/2015
Thiagarajan Nagammai, Mohamed Mohazmi, Su May Liew, Karuthan Chinna, Pauline Siew Mei Lai
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s11136-015-0933-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



To assess the validity and reliability of the Malay version of the Quality of Life (QOL) Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-41) in Malaysia.


The QUALEFFO-41 was translated from English to Malay and administered to 215 post-menopausal osteoporotic women ≥50 years who could understand Malay, at baseline and 4 weeks. The SF-36 was administered at baseline to assess convergent validity. To assess discriminative validity, patients with and without back pain were recruited.


Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the QUALEFFO-41 had five domains. Good internal consistency was seen in all domains (0.752–0.925) except for the social activity domain (0.692). Test–retest reliability showed adequate correlation for all items (0.752–0.964, p < 0.001). Patients with back pain had significantly worse QOL compared with those without (back pain = 42.2 ± 10.9, no back pain = 33.3 ± 8.9; p < 0.001). The total QUALEFFO-41 score and the SF-36 physical and mental composite scores were significantly correlated (−0.636 and −0.529, p < 0.001, respectively).


The Malay version of the QUALEFFO-41 was found to be a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the QOL of osteoporotic patients in Malaysia. To enable the QUALEFFO-41 to be used in a multiracial population, further studies should look into validating other versions of the QUALEFFO-41 in Malaysia.

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