Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Remembering the past and imagining the future are hallmarks of mental time travel. We provide evidence that such experiences are influenced by individual differences in temporal and affective biases in cognitive style, particularly brooding rumination (a negative past-oriented bias) and optimism (a positive future-oriented bias). Participants completed a 7-day, cellphone-based experience-sampling study of temporal orientation and mental imagery. Multilevel models showed that individual differences in brooding rumination predicted less vivid and positive past- and future-oriented thoughts, even after controlling for depressed mood. People high in brooding rumination were also more likely to report thinking about a past experience when probed at random during the day. Conversely, optimists were more likely to report more vivid and positive future-oriented, but not past-oriented thoughts, although they did not report thinking more or less often about the past and future. The results suggest that temporal and affective biases in cognitive style influence how people think about the past and future in daily life.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Beaty, R. E., & Schacter, D. L. (2018). Episodic memory and cognitive control. Contributions to creative idea production. In R. Jung & O. Vartanian (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of the neuroscience of creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Beaty, R. E., & Silvia, P. J. (2012). Why do ideas get more creative across time? An executive interpretation of the serial order effect in divergent thinking tasks. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6, 309–319. CrossRef
Burgin, C. J., Silvia, P. J., Eddington, K. M., & Kwapil, T. R. (2013). Palm or cell? Comparing personal digital assistants and cell phones for experience sampling research. Social Science Computer Review, 31, 244–251. CrossRef
Cole, S. N., Staugaard, S. R., & Berntsen, D. (2016). Inducing involuntary and voluntary mental time travel using a laboratory paradigm. Memory & Cognition, 44, 376–389. CrossRef
D’Argembeau, A., & Mathy, A. (2011). Tracking the construction of episodic future thoughts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140, 258–271. CrossRef
D’Argembeau, A., Ortoleva, C., Jumentier, S., & Van der Linden, M. (2010). Component processes underlying future thinking. Memory & Cognition, 38, 809–819. CrossRef
D’Argembeau, A., Renauld, O., & Van der Linden, M. (2011). Frequency, characteristics and functions of future-oriented thoughts in daily life. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 96–103. CrossRef
Dickson, J. M., & Bates, G. W. (2005). Influence of repression on autobiographical memories and expectations of the future. Australian Journal of Psychology, 57, 20–27. CrossRef
Hill, P. F., & Emery, L. J. (2013). Episodic future thought: Contributions from working memory. Consciousness & Cognition, 22, 677–683. CrossRef
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd edn.). New York: Guilford.
Klinger, E., & Cox, W. M. (1987). Dimensions of thought flow in everyday life. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 7, 105–128. CrossRef
Kremers, I. P., Spinhoven, P., Van Der Does, A. J., & van Dyck, R. (2006). Social problem solving, autobiographical memory and the future specificity in outpatients with borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13, 131–137. CrossRef
MacLeod, A. K., Rose, G., & Williams, J. M. (1993). Components of hopelessness about the future in parasuicide. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 17, 441–455. CrossRef
McNally, R. J., Litz, B. T., Prassas, A., Shin, L. M., & Weathers, F. W. (1994). Emotional priming of autobiographical memory in post-traumatic stress disorder. Cognition & Emotion, 8, 351–367. CrossRef
Schacter, D. L., & Addis, D. R. (2007). On the constructive simulation of past and future events. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30, 331–332. CrossRef
Schacter, D. L., Benoit, R. G., De Brigard, F., & Szpunar, K. K. (2015). Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: intersections between memory and decisions. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 17, 114–121.
Silvia, P. J., Kwapil, T. R., Eddington, K. M., & Brown, L. H. (2013). Missed beeps and missing data: dispositional and situational predictors of non-response in experience sampling research. Social Science Computer Review, 31, 471–481. CrossRef
Szpunar, K. K., Watson, J. M., & McDermott, K. B. (2007). Neural substrates of envisioning the future. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 642–647. CrossRef
Telesage. (2009). SmartQ (version 5.2.48) [computer software]. Chapel Hill: Telesage.
Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: a psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 247–259. CrossRef
Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology, 26, 1–12. CrossRef
Weinstein, N. D. (1980). Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 806–820. CrossRef
Williams, J. M. G., Ellis, N. C., Tyers, C., & Healy, H. (1996). The specificity of autobiographical memory and imageability of the future. Memory & Cognition, 24, 116–125. CrossRef
Zabelina, D. L., & Robinson, M. D. (2010). Creativity as flexible cognitive control. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 4, 136–143. CrossRef
Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2015). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, & W. van Beek (Eds.), Time perspective theory: Review, research and application. Cham: Springer.
- Thinking about the past and future in daily life: an experience sampling study of individual differences in mental time travel
Roger E. Beaty
Daniel L. Schacter
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg