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Chronic rheumatic conditions are typically characterized by chronic pain and are uniquely associated with increased rates of cigarette smoking and poor sleep quality. However, no study has examined the possible additive or interactive effects of these two health behaviors in individuals diagnosed with a chronic rheumatic condition. The goal of this study is to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and sleep in a population sample of individuals diagnosed with a chronic rheumatic condition and related functional impairment. Cross sectional survey data was obtained from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Individuals diagnosed with a chronic rheumatic condition were more likely to be a former or current smoker compared to non-diagnosed individuals. Individuals with a chronic rheumatic condition were more likely to report <6 h of sleep per night and endorsed significantly more insomnia and daytime sleepiness. There was no interaction between diagnosis of a chronic rheumatic condition and smoking status on any of the sleep outcomes assessed. Finally, an interaction was observed suggesting individuals with a chronic rheumatic condition who currently smoke are more likely to report averaging <6 h of sleep per night and frequent insomnia compared to individuals with a chronic rheumatic condition who never smoked. These results suggest both a unique and additive relationship between smoking and sleep in individuals with a chronic rheumatic condition. Findings can likely be generalized to other conditions commonly associated with chronic pain.
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- The relationship among smoking, sleep, and chronic rheumatic conditions commonly associated with pain in the national health interview survey
Brooke A. Stipelman
- Springer US