Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 3/2014

01-06-2014 | ORIGINAL PAPER

The Importance of Non-reactivity to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: A Case for Mindfulness

Auteurs: Kathleen Sullivan Kalill, Michael Treanor, Lizabeth Roemer

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 3/2014

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Mindfulness has shown promise in the treatment of several disorders, but the empirical literature regarding mindfulness and post-traumatic stress symptoms is limited. The current study examined the relationship among self-reported levels of mindfulness facets and post-traumatic stress symptoms after controlling for negative affect, age, number of traumas, and years since the trauma occurred. Participants were 157 students at an urban commuter university who completed measures online and endorsed experiencing fear, horror, or helplessness during a potentially traumatic event. Participants were predominantly female (77 %) and ranged in age from 18 to 64 years (mean = 26, SD = 4.73). Results indicated that the ability to describe emotional experiences was uniquely associated with lower hyperarousal scores, while non-reactivity to inner experiences was uniquely associated with lower overall post-traumatic stress symptoms, as well as lower re-experiencing and hyperarousal scores. Results are discussed in terms of the potential for mindfulness as an intervention for post-traumatic stress symptoms.
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: Emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1849–1858. PubMedCrossRef Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: Emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1849–1858. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Asmundson, G. J. G., Wright, K. D., McCreary, D. R., & Pedlar, D. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in United Nations peacekeepers: An examination of factor structure in peacekeepers with and without chronic pain. Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 32, 26–37. CrossRef Asmundson, G. J. G., Wright, K. D., McCreary, D. R., & Pedlar, D. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in United Nations peacekeepers: An examination of factor structure in peacekeepers with and without chronic pain. Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 32, 26–37. CrossRef
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191–206. PubMedCrossRef Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191–206. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baer, R., Smith, G., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45. PubMedCrossRef Baer, R., Smith, G., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. New York: Guilford Press. Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Bernstein, A., Tanay, G., & Vujanovic, A. A. (2011). Concurrent relations between mindful attention and psychopathology among trauma-exposed adults: Preliminary evidence of transdiagnostic resilience. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 25(2), 99–113. CrossRef Bernstein, A., Tanay, G., & Vujanovic, A. A. (2011). Concurrent relations between mindful attention and psychopathology among trauma-exposed adults: Preliminary evidence of transdiagnostic resilience. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 25(2), 99–113. CrossRef
go back to reference Blanchard, E. B., Jones-Alexander, J., Buckley, T. C., & Forneris, C. A. (1996). Psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34(8), 669–673. PubMedCrossRef Blanchard, E. B., Jones-Alexander, J., Buckley, T. C., & Forneris, C. A. (1996). Psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34(8), 669–673. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bliese, P. D., Wright, K., Adler, A. B., Cabrera, O., Hoge, C. W., & Castro, C. A. (2008). Validating the primary care posttraumatic stress disorder screen and the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist with soldiers returning from combat. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 272–281. PubMedCrossRef Bliese, P. D., Wright, K., Adler, A. B., Cabrera, O., Hoge, C. W., & Castro, C. A. (2008). Validating the primary care posttraumatic stress disorder screen and the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist with soldiers returning from combat. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 272–281. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848. PubMedCrossRef Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Perils and promise in defining and measuring mindfulness: Observations from experience. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 242–248. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Perils and promise in defining and measuring mindfulness: Observations from experience. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 242–248.
go back to reference Crawford, J. R., & Henry, J. D. (2004). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-linical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 245–265. PubMedCrossRef Crawford, J. R., & Henry, J. D. (2004). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-linical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 245–265. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dalrymple, K., & Herbert, J. (2007). Acceptance and commitment therapy for generalized social anxiety disorder: A pilot study. Behavior Modification, 31(5), 543–568. PubMedCrossRef Dalrymple, K., & Herbert, J. (2007). Acceptance and commitment therapy for generalized social anxiety disorder: A pilot study. Behavior Modification, 31(5), 543–568. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Grossman, P. (2011). Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re)invention of mindfulness: Comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1034–1040. Grossman, P. (2011). Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re)invention of mindfulness: Comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1034–1040.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., & Shenk, C. (2004). Operationalizing mindfulness without unnecessary attachments. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 249–254. Hayes, S. C., & Shenk, C. (2004). Operationalizing mindfulness without unnecessary attachments. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 249–254.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4(1), 33–47. PubMedCrossRef Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4(1), 33–47. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kearney, D. J., Mcdermott, K., Malte, C., Martinez, M., & Simpson, T. L. (2012). Effects of participation in a mindfulness program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32(6), 413–420. Kearney, D. J., Mcdermott, K., Malte, C., Martinez, M., & Simpson, T. L. (2012). Effects of participation in a mindfulness program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32(6), 413–420.
go back to reference Kimbrough, E., Magyari, T., Langenberg, P., Chesney, M., & Berman, B. (2010). Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 17–33. PubMed Kimbrough, E., Magyari, T., Langenberg, P., Chesney, M., & Berman, B. (2010). Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 17–33. PubMed
go back to reference King, D. W., Leskin, G. A., King, L. A., & Weathers, F. W. (1998). Confirmatory factor analysis of the clinician-administered PTSD scale: Evidence for the dimensionality of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Assessment, 10, 90–96. CrossRef King, D. W., Leskin, G. A., King, L. A., & Weathers, F. W. (1998). Confirmatory factor analysis of the clinician-administered PTSD scale: Evidence for the dimensionality of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Assessment, 10, 90–96. CrossRef
go back to reference Lieberman, M. D., Eisenberger, N. I., Crockett, M. J., Tom, S. M., Pfeifer, J. H., & Way, B. M. (2007). Putting feelings into words: Affect labeling disrupts amygdala activity to affective stimuli. Psychological Science, 18, 421–442. PubMedCrossRef Lieberman, M. D., Eisenberger, N. I., Crockett, M. J., Tom, S. M., Pfeifer, J. H., & Way, B. M. (2007). Putting feelings into words: Affect labeling disrupts amygdala activity to affective stimuli. Psychological Science, 18, 421–442. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Niles, B. L., Klunk-Gillis, J., Ryngala, D. J., Silberbogen, A. K., Paysnick, A., & Wolf, E. J. (2011). Comparing mindfulness and psychoeducation treatment for combat-related PTSD using a telehealth approach. Psychological trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(5), 538–547. CrossRef Niles, B. L., Klunk-Gillis, J., Ryngala, D. J., Silberbogen, A. K., Paysnick, A., & Wolf, E. J. (2011). Comparing mindfulness and psychoeducation treatment for combat-related PTSD using a telehealth approach. Psychological trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(5), 538–547. CrossRef
go back to reference Owens, G. P., Walter, K. H., Chard, K. M., & Davis, P. A. (2012). Changes in mindfulness skills and treatment response among veterans in residential PTSD treatment. Psychological trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(2), 221–228. Owens, G. P., Walter, K. H., Chard, K. M., & Davis, P. A. (2012). Changes in mindfulness skills and treatment response among veterans in residential PTSD treatment. Psychological trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(2), 221–228.
go back to reference Palmieri, P. A., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2005). Confirmatory factor analysis of posttraumatic stress symptoms in sexually harassed women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 657–666. PubMedCrossRef Palmieri, P. A., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2005). Confirmatory factor analysis of posttraumatic stress symptoms in sexually harassed women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 657–666. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Roemer, L., Orsillo, S., & Salters-Pedneault, K. (2008). Efficacy of an acceptance-based behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(6), 1083–1089. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Roemer, L., Orsillo, S., & Salters-Pedneault, K. (2008). Efficacy of an acceptance-based behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(6), 1083–1089. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rothbaum, B. O., Foa, E. B., Riggs, D., Murchoch, T., & Walsh, W. (1992). A prospective examination of post-traumatic stress disorder in rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 455–475. CrossRef Rothbaum, B. O., Foa, E. B., Riggs, D., Murchoch, T., & Walsh, W. (1992). A prospective examination of post-traumatic stress disorder in rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 455–475. CrossRef
go back to reference Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. (2010). Mindfulness and experiential avoidance as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder avoidance symptom severity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 409–415. PubMedCrossRef Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. (2010). Mindfulness and experiential avoidance as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder avoidance symptom severity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 409–415. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tull, M. T., Barrett, H. M., McMillan, E. S., & Roemer, L. (2007). A preliminary investigation of the relationship between emotion regulation difficulties and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Behavior Therapy, 38, 303–313. PubMedCrossRef Tull, M. T., Barrett, H. M., McMillan, E. S., & Roemer, L. (2007). A preliminary investigation of the relationship between emotion regulation difficulties and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Behavior Therapy, 38, 303–313. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Vrana, S. R., & Lauterbach, D. (1994). Prevalence of traumatic events and post-traumatic psychological symptoms in a nonclinical sample of college students. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, 289–302. PubMedCrossRef Vrana, S. R., & Lauterbach, D. (1994). Prevalence of traumatic events and post-traumatic psychological symptoms in a nonclinical sample of college students. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, 289–302. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Vujanovic, A., Youngwirth, N., Johnson, K., & Zvolensky, M. (2009). Mindfulness-based acceptance and posttraumatic stress symptoms among trauma-exposed adults without Axis I psychopathology. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(2), 297–303. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Vujanovic, A., Youngwirth, N., Johnson, K., & Zvolensky, M. (2009). Mindfulness-based acceptance and posttraumatic stress symptoms among trauma-exposed adults without Axis I psychopathology. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(2), 297–303. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Vujanovic, A. A., Bonn-Miller, M. O., Bernstein, A. M., McKee, L. G., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2010). Incremental validity of mindfulness skills in relation to emotional dysregulation among a young adult community sample. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 39(3), 203–213. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Vujanovic, A. A., Bonn-Miller, M. O., Bernstein, A. M., McKee, L. G., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2010). Incremental validity of mindfulness skills in relation to emotional dysregulation among a young adult community sample. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 39(3), 203–213. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wahbeh, H., Lu, M., & Oken, B. (2011). Mindful awareness and non-judging in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Mindfulness, 2, 219–227. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Wahbeh, H., Lu, M., & Oken, B. (2011). Mindful awareness and non-judging in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Mindfulness, 2, 219–227. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Walker, E., Newman, E., Dobie, D., Ciechanowski, P., & Katon, W. (2002). Validation of the PTSD checklist in an HMO sample of women. General Hospital Psychiatry, 24(6), 375–380. PubMedCrossRef Walker, E., Newman, E., Dobie, D., Ciechanowski, P., & Katon, W. (2002). Validation of the PTSD checklist in an HMO sample of women. General Hospital Psychiatry, 24(6), 375–380. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Walser, R. D., & Hayes, S. C. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy and trauma survivors. In V. Follette (Ed.), Trauma in context: A cognitive behavioral approach to trauma (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Walser, R. D., & Hayes, S. C. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy and trauma survivors. In V. Follette (Ed.), Trauma in context: A cognitive behavioral approach to trauma (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Watson, D., Clark, L., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. PubMedCrossRef Watson, D., Clark, L., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Weathers, F., Litz, B., Herman, D., Huska, J., & Keane, T. (1993). The PTSD checklist (PCL): Reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility. San Antonio: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Weathers, F., Litz, B., Herman, D., Huska, J., & Keane, T. (1993). The PTSD checklist (PCL): Reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility. San Antonio: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Metagegevens
Titel
The Importance of Non-reactivity to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: A Case for Mindfulness
Auteurs
Kathleen Sullivan Kalill
Michael Treanor
Lizabeth Roemer
Publicatiedatum
01-06-2014
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 3/2014
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0182-6

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2014

Mindfulness 3/2014 Naar de uitgave