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12-11-2022 | Original Article

The Impact of Emotion Regulation on the Relationship Between Momentary Negative Affect and End-of-Day Worry and Rumination

Auteurs: Michal Clayton, Megan E. Renna, David H. Klemanski, Caroline Kerns, Katie A. McLaughlin, Douglas S. Mennin

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 1/2023

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Abstract

Background

Negative self-referential processing (NSRP), including worry and rumination, is a hallmark feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Negative affect relates to NSRP, and emotion regulation skills (e.g., reappraisal and acceptance) may attenuate this relationship. This ecological momentary assessment study explored whether increased emotion regulation skills use would alter associations between daily fluctuations of negative affect and end-of-day NSRP.

Methods

Participants were 99 young adults (Mage = 19.94; SD = 1.81), diagnosed with GAD (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 51). They provided twice daily ratings of negative affect, reappraisal, and acceptance over 14 days, and end-of-day ratings of NSRP. Mixed linear models adjusted for covariates, including state-level worry and rumination.

Results

Individuals with GAD reported higher levels of negative than controls, and high negative affect corresponded to greater end-of-day NSRP across all participants. Increased emotion regulation skills altered the relationship between increased negative affect and higher NSRP, though this did not differ by group. Acceptance and reappraisal differentially affected associations between negative affect and NSRP.

Conclusions

Findings suggest that emotion regulation skills moderate the relationship between negative affect and end-of-day NSRP, highlighting the utility of using reappraisal and acceptance in daily life. This could eventually lead to improvements in treating GAD.
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Voetnoten
1
Positive affect (PA), though it was not related to major hypotheses, was also examined using the same data analysis procedure. Results have been included as Supplemental Data.
 
2
Although not related to study hypotheses about momentary ER skill use moderating the relationship between momentary NA and end-of-day NSRP, questions about the reverse relationship between end-of-day NSRP and momentary NA and ER skills were also examined. Bidirectional analyses indicated significant associations between increased end-of-day worry (b = 0.25, SE = 0.04, p < 0.001) and rumination (b = 0.69, SE = 0.06, p < 0.001) and higher momentary NA. Results from models testing the relationships between end-of-day NSRP and momentary ER skills were non-significant (ps > 0.05), except for increased end-of-day worry significantly corresponding to higher momentary reappraisal (b = 0.01, SE = 0.01, p < 0.01).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
The Impact of Emotion Regulation on the Relationship Between Momentary Negative Affect and End-of-Day Worry and Rumination
Auteurs
Michal Clayton
Megan E. Renna
David H. Klemanski
Caroline Kerns
Katie A. McLaughlin
Douglas S. Mennin
Publicatiedatum
12-11-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 1/2023
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-022-10339-4

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