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18-11-2022 | Original Article

Effect of Emotion Regulation Difficulties on Acute Smoking Urges Following a 35% Carbon Dioxide Challenge

Auteurs: Hannah R. Brinkman, Jacqueline E. Smith, Teresa M. Leyro, Michael J. Zvolensky, Samantha G. Farris

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 1/2023

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Abstract

Background

Carbon dioxide (CO2) challenges produce uncomfortable anxious arousal sensations and can be leveraged to study how vulnerability factors influence smoking outcomes in contexts of acute distress. Emotion dysregulation is associated with elevated anxious arousal among smokers, which may acutely reduce smoking motivation following CO2 exposure as immediate smoking may further amplify CO2-induced arousal. However, no studies have examined the effect of emotion regulation (ER) difficulties on smoking motivation immediately following CO2-induced distress. This study examined the role of ER difficulties on the effect of 35% CO2-induced arousal and acute smoking urges.

Methods

Smokers were randomized to receive a single vital capacity breath of either 35% CO2-enriched or compressed room air. Trait ER difficulties and pre- and immediate post-challenge smoking urges were assessed. Consistent with work showing emotion dysregulation is associated with elevated anxious arousal and reactivity to bodily sensations, we hypothesized that smokers higher in ER difficulties would experience reduced urges immediately following 35% CO2-exposure (relative to room air).

Results

Analyses showed a significant interaction between challenge condition and ER difficulties on smoking urges. Smokers with greater ER difficulty evidenced reduced urges following CO2-exposure, whereas urges increased following room air.

Conclusion

This study found that smokers with greater ER difficulties evidenced an acute dampening in smoking urges following 35% CO2-exposure. These findings may suggest a modification to extant negative reinforcement models of addiction by suggesting that contexts characterized by acute anxious arousal may decrease immediate negative reinforcement smoking.
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Metagegevens
Titel
Effect of Emotion Regulation Difficulties on Acute Smoking Urges Following a 35% Carbon Dioxide Challenge
Auteurs
Hannah R. Brinkman
Jacqueline E. Smith
Teresa M. Leyro
Michael J. Zvolensky
Samantha G. Farris
Publicatiedatum
18-11-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 1/2023
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-022-10342-9

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