Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 11/2018

02-07-2018 | Empirical Research

The Effects of Neighborhood Context on Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Among Adolescents Involved in the Juvenile Justice System: Latent Classes and Contextual Effects

Auteurs: Kevin T. Wolff, Celina Cuevas, Jonathan Intravia, Michael T. Baglivio, Nathan Epps

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 11/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been identified as a key risk factor associated with a wide range of negative life outcomes, including juvenile delinquency. Much less work has explored whether certain combinations of ACEs, or typologies of trauma, exist, and whether or not these subgroups are differentially associated with certain youth-level and/or community-level characteristics. The current study uses latent class analysis to examine ACE typologies among a sample of over 92,000 juvenile offenders between the ages of 10 and 18 in the state of Florida (52% male, 37.3% White, 46.8% Black, 15.9% Hispanic). Multilevel multinomial logistic regression is used to assess the relationship between both individual- and community-level factors and class membership. The findings suggest that a total of five distinct ACE typologies exist among the sample of juvenile offenders, and age, race, and sex were significantly associated with class membership. Additionally, controlling for individual-level characteristics, community-level measures of immigrant concentration, residential instability, and two separate measures of concentrated disadvantage and affluence were significantly related to class membership. This study contributes to the understanding of adverse childhood experiences, and adds to existing knowledge regarding the relationship between contextual factors and childhood abuse, maltreatment, and trauma. The identification of ACE subgroups with distinct characteristics may help guide prevention strategies and tailor treatment provided by the juvenile justice system.
Voetnoten
1
See Baglivio et al. 2014a for detailed methodology on the construction of ACE scores from PACT items.
 
2
In keeping with FDJJ standards, to optimize the policy-relevance, race/ethnicity includes White, Black, and Hispanic youth (the youth classified as “other” were excluded from the analysis, as discussed above). According to FDJJ policy, Hispanic ethnicity takes precedence over race, meaning the youth classified as White are White non-Hispanic, and the youth classified as Black are Black non-Hispanic, while Hispanic youth may be either White or Black.
 
3
Importantly, while the newly developed three-step process is believed to more accurately and efficiently estimate the relationship between observed covariates and latent class membership, a multilevel version of this mixed regression model has not yet been developed. For that reason, we decided to present those results that were most central to our current analysis, which include standard errors that have been corrected for the multilevel structure present within our data.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Abram, K. M., Teplin, L. A., Charles, D. R., Longworth, S. L., McClelland, G. M., & Dulcan, M. K. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma in youth in juvenile detention. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 403–410. PubMedPubMedCentral Abram, K. M., Teplin, L. A., Charles, D. R., Longworth, S. L., McClelland, G. M., & Dulcan, M. K. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma in youth in juvenile detention. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 403–410. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Alexander, J. F., & Sexton, T. L. (2002). Functional family therapy: A model for treating high-risk, acting-out youth. In F. W. Kaslow & J. Lebow (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychotherapy: Integrative/eclectic (pp. 111–132). New York, NY: John Wiley. Alexander, J. F., & Sexton, T. L. (2002). Functional family therapy: A model for treating high-risk, acting-out youth. In F. W. Kaslow & J. Lebow (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychotherapy: Integrative/eclectic (pp. 111–132). New York, NY: John Wiley.
go back to reference Anda, R. F., Brown, D. W., Felitti, V. J., Bermner, J. D., Dube, S. R., & Giles, W. H. (2007). Adverse childhood experiences and prescribed psychotropic medications in adults. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 32(5), 389–394. Anda, R. F., Brown, D. W., Felitti, V. J., Bermner, J. D., Dube, S. R., & Giles, W. H. (2007). Adverse childhood experiences and prescribed psychotropic medications in adults. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 32(5), 389–394.
go back to reference Anda, R. F., Butchart, A., Felitti, V. J., & Brown, D. W. (2010). Building a framework for global surveillance of the public health implications of Adverse Childhood Experiences. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39, 93–98. PubMed Anda, R. F., Butchart, A., Felitti, V. J., & Brown, D. W. (2010). Building a framework for global surveillance of the public health implications of Adverse Childhood Experiences. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39, 93–98. PubMed
go back to reference Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C., Perry, B. D., Dube, S. R., & Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood: A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(3), 174–186. PubMed Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C., Perry, B. D., Dube, S. R., & Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood: A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(3), 174–186. PubMed
go back to reference Aneshensel, C. S., & Sucoff, C. A. (1996). The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37(4), 293–310. PubMed Aneshensel, C. S., & Sucoff, C. A. (1996). The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37(4), 293–310. PubMed
go back to reference Armour, C., Elklit, A., & Christoffersen, M. N. (2014). A latent class analysis of childhood maltreatment: Identifying abuse typologies. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 19(1), 23–39. Armour, C., Elklit, A., & Christoffersen, M. N. (2014). A latent class analysis of childhood maltreatment: Identifying abuse typologies. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 19(1), 23–39.
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T. (2009). The assessment of risk to recidivate among a juvenile offending population. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 596–607. Baglivio, M. T. (2009). The assessment of risk to recidivate among a juvenile offending population. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 596–607.
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., & Epps, N. (2016). The interrelatedness of Adverse Childhood Experiences among high-risk juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 14(3), 179–198. Baglivio, M. T., & Epps, N. (2016). The interrelatedness of Adverse Childhood Experiences among high-risk juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 14(3), 179–198.
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., Epps, N., Swartz, K., Huq, M. S., Sheer, A., & Hardt, N. S. (2014a). The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in the lives of juvenile offenders. Journal of Juvenile Justice, 3(2), 1–23. Baglivio, M. T., Epps, N., Swartz, K., Huq, M. S., Sheer, A., & Hardt, N. S. (2014a). The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in the lives of juvenile offenders. Journal of Juvenile Justice, 3(2), 1–23.
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., Greenwald, M. A., & Russell, M. (2015a). Assessing the implications of a structured decision-making tool for recidivism in a statewide analysis: Disposition matrix for court recommendations made by juvenile probation officers. Criminology and Public Policy, 14, 5–49. Baglivio, M. T., Greenwald, M. A., & Russell, M. (2015a). Assessing the implications of a structured decision-making tool for recidivism in a statewide analysis: Disposition matrix for court recommendations made by juvenile probation officers. Criminology and Public Policy, 14, 5–49.
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., Jackowski, K., Greenwald, M. A., & Howell, J. C. (2014b). Serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders: A statewide analysis of prevalence and prediction of subsequent recidivism using risk and protective factors. Criminology and Public Policy, 13(1), 83–116. Baglivio, M. T., Jackowski, K., Greenwald, M. A., & Howell, J. C. (2014b). Serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders: A statewide analysis of prevalence and prediction of subsequent recidivism using risk and protective factors. Criminology and Public Policy, 13(1), 83–116.
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Epps, N., & Nelson, R. (2017a). Predicting adverse childhood experiences: The importance of neighborhood context in youth trauma among delinquent youth. Crimean and Delinquency, 63(2), 166–188. Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Epps, N., & Nelson, R. (2017a). Predicting adverse childhood experiences: The importance of neighborhood context in youth trauma among delinquent youth. Crimean and Delinquency, 63(2), 166–188.
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Jackowski, K., & Greenwald, M. A. (2017b). A multilevel examination of risk/need change scores, community context, and successful reentry of committed juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 15(1), 38–61. Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Jackowski, K., & Greenwald, M. A. (2017b). A multilevel examination of risk/need change scores, community context, and successful reentry of committed juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 15(1), 38–61.
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Piquero, A. R., & Epps, N. (2015b). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and juvenile offending trajectories in a juvenile offender sample. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43, 229–241. Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Piquero, A. R., & Epps, N. (2015b). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and juvenile offending trajectories in a juvenile offender sample. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43, 229–241.
go back to reference Bakk, Z., Oberski, D. L., & Vermunt, J. K. (2014). Relating latent class assignments to external variables: standard errors for correct inference. Political Analysis, 22(4), 520–540. Bakk, Z., Oberski, D. L., & Vermunt, J. K. (2014). Relating latent class assignments to external variables: standard errors for correct inference. Political Analysis, 22(4), 520–540.
go back to reference Ballard, E. D., Van Eck, K., Musci, R. J., Hart, S. R., Storr, C. L., Breslau, N., & Wilcox, H. C. (2015). Latent classes of childhood trauma exposure predict the development of behavioral health outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 45(15), 3305–3316. PubMed Ballard, E. D., Van Eck, K., Musci, R. J., Hart, S. R., Storr, C. L., Breslau, N., & Wilcox, H. C. (2015). Latent classes of childhood trauma exposure predict the development of behavioral health outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 45(15), 3305–3316. PubMed
go back to reference Baumer, E. P., Messner, S. F., & Felson, R. (1998). Influence of crack cocaine on robbery, burglary, and homicide rates: A cross-city, longitudinal analysis. Journal of Crimean and Delinquency, 33, 316–340. Baumer, E. P., Messner, S. F., & Felson, R. (1998). Influence of crack cocaine on robbery, burglary, and homicide rates: A cross-city, longitudinal analysis. Journal of Crimean and Delinquency, 33, 316–340.
go back to reference Barboza, G. (2018). Latent classes and cumulative impacts of exposure to adverse childhood experiences: how and why do interrelationships count? Child Maltreatment, 23(2), 111-125. Barboza, G. (2018). Latent classes and cumulative impacts of exposure to adverse childhood experiences: how and why do interrelationships count? Child Maltreatment, 23(2), 111-125.
go back to reference Barnoski, R. (2009). Providing evidence-based programs with fidelity in Washington State juvenile courts: Cost analysis (Document No. 09-12-1201). Olympia: Washington State Institute forPublic Policy. Barnoski, R. (2009). Providing evidence-based programs with fidelity in Washington State juvenile courts: Cost analysis (Document No. 09-12-1201). Olympia: Washington State Institute forPublic Policy.
go back to reference Barrett, D. E., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D., & Zhang, D. (2014a). Delinquency and recidivism: A multi-cohort, matched-control study of the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems and disabilities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 22, 3–15. Barrett, D. E., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D., & Zhang, D. (2014a). Delinquency and recidivism: A multi-cohort, matched-control study of the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems and disabilities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 22, 3–15.
go back to reference Bellis, M. A., Lowey, H., Leckenby, N., Hughes, K., & Harrison, D. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences: Retrospective study to determine their impact on adult health behaviors and health outcomes in a UK population. Journal of Public Health, 36(1), 81–91. PubMed Bellis, M. A., Lowey, H., Leckenby, N., Hughes, K., & Harrison, D. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences: Retrospective study to determine their impact on adult health behaviors and health outcomes in a UK population. Journal of Public Health, 36(1), 81–91. PubMed
go back to reference Benson, M. L., Fox, G. L., DeMaris, A., & Van Wyk, J. (2003). Neighborhood disadvantage, individual economic distress and violence against women in intimate relationships. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 19(3), 207–235. Benson, M. L., Fox, G. L., DeMaris, A., & Van Wyk, J. (2003). Neighborhood disadvantage, individual economic distress and violence against women in intimate relationships. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 19(3), 207–235.
go back to reference Berzenski, S. R., & Yates, T. M. (2011). Classes and consequences of multiple maltreatment: A person-centered analysis. Child maltreatment, 16(4), 250–261. PubMed Berzenski, S. R., & Yates, T. M. (2011). Classes and consequences of multiple maltreatment: A person-centered analysis. Child maltreatment, 16(4), 250–261. PubMed
go back to reference Beyer, K., Wallis, A. B., & Hamberger, L. K. (2015). Neighborhood environment and intimate partner violence: A systematic review. Trauma Violence and Abuse, 16(1), 16–47. Beyer, K., Wallis, A. B., & Hamberger, L. K. (2015). Neighborhood environment and intimate partner violence: A systematic review. Trauma Violence and Abuse, 16(1), 16–47.
go back to reference Bolger, K. E., & Patterson, C. J. (2001). Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to peer rejection. Child Development, 72(2), 549–568. PubMed Bolger, K. E., & Patterson, C. J. (2001). Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to peer rejection. Child Development, 72(2), 549–568. PubMed
go back to reference Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G., Kato, P., & Sealand, N. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent behavior? American Journal of Sociology, 99, 353–395. Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G., Kato, P., & Sealand, N. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent behavior? American Journal of Sociology, 99, 353–395.
go back to reference Brown, D. W., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Edwards, V. J., Malarcher, A. M., Croft, J. B., & Giles, W. H. (2010). Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health, 10(20), 1–12. Brown, D. W., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Edwards, V. J., Malarcher, A. M., Croft, J. B., & Giles, W. H. (2010). Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health, 10(20), 1–12.
go back to reference Browning, C. R. (2002). The span of collective efficacy: Extending social disorganization theory to partner violence. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(4), 833–850. Browning, C. R. (2002). The span of collective efficacy: Extending social disorganization theory to partner violence. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(4), 833–850.
go back to reference Browning, C. R., Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2004). Neighborhood context and racial differences in early adolescent sexual activity. Demography, 41(4), 697–720. PubMed Browning, C. R., Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2004). Neighborhood context and racial differences in early adolescent sexual activity. Demography, 41(4), 697–720. PubMed
go back to reference Burke, N. J., Hellman, J. L., Scott, B. G., Weems, C. F., & Carrion, V. G. (2011). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on an urban pediatric population. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 408–413. PubMed Burke, N. J., Hellman, J. L., Scott, B. G., Weems, C. F., & Carrion, V. G. (2011). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on an urban pediatric population. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 408–413. PubMed
go back to reference Cavanaugh, C. E., Petras, H., & Martins, S. S. (2015). Gender-specific profiles of adverse childhood experiences, past year mental and substance use disorders, and their associations among a national sample of adults in the United States. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50(8), 1257–1266. PubMedPubMedCentral Cavanaugh, C. E., Petras, H., & Martins, S. S. (2015). Gender-specific profiles of adverse childhood experiences, past year mental and substance use disorders, and their associations among a national sample of adults in the United States. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50(8), 1257–1266. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Celeux, G., & Soromenho, G. (1996). An entropy criterion for assessing the number of clusters in a mixture model. Journal of Classification, 13(2), 195–212. Celeux, G., & Soromenho, G. (1996). An entropy criterion for assessing the number of clusters in a mixture model. Journal of Classification, 13(2), 195–212.
go back to reference Chapman, D. P., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. D., Edwards, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82, 217–225. PubMed Chapman, D. P., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. D., Edwards, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82, 217–225. PubMed
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kaiser Permanente. (2016). The ACE Study Survey Data [Unpublished Data]. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kaiser Permanente. (2016). The ACE Study Survey Data [Unpublished Data]. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
go back to reference Chauhan, P., & Widom, C. S. (2012). Childhood maltreatment and illicit drug use in middle adulthood: The role of neighborhood characteristics. Development and Psychopathology, 24(3), 723–738. PubMed Chauhan, P., & Widom, C. S. (2012). Childhood maltreatment and illicit drug use in middle adulthood: The role of neighborhood characteristics. Development and Psychopathology, 24(3), 723–738. PubMed
go back to reference Cicchetti, D. (2013). Annual research review: Resilient functioning in maltreated children—past, present, and future perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 402–422. PubMed Cicchetti, D. (2013). Annual research review: Resilient functioning in maltreated children—past, present, and future perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 402–422. PubMed
go back to reference Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., & Steer, R. A. (2004). A multisite, randomized controlled trial for sexually abused children with PTSD problems. Journal of the American Academy of Children and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 393–402. Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., & Steer, R. A. (2004). A multisite, randomized controlled trial for sexually abused children with PTSD problems. Journal of the American Academy of Children and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 393–402.
go back to reference Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2010). Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for traumatized children. Evidence-Based Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents, 2, 295–311. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2010). Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for traumatized children. Evidence-Based Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents, 2, 295–311.
go back to reference Copp, J. E., Kuhl, D. C., Giordano, P. C., Longmore, M. A., & Manning, W. D. (2015). Intimate partner violence in neighborhood context: the roles of structural disadvantage, subjective disorder, and emotional distress. Social Science Research, 53, 59–72. PubMedPubMedCentral Copp, J. E., Kuhl, D. C., Giordano, P. C., Longmore, M. A., & Manning, W. D. (2015). Intimate partner violence in neighborhood context: the roles of structural disadvantage, subjective disorder, and emotional distress. Social Science Research, 53, 59–72. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Coulton, C. J., Crampton, D. S., Irwin, M., Spilsbury, J. C., & Korbin, J. E. (2007). How neighborhoods influence child maltreatment: A review of the literature and alternative pathways. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31(11), 1117–1142. PubMed Coulton, C. J., Crampton, D. S., Irwin, M., Spilsbury, J. C., & Korbin, J. E. (2007). How neighborhoods influence child maltreatment: A review of the literature and alternative pathways. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31(11), 1117–1142. PubMed
go back to reference Coulton, C. J., Korbin, J. E., & Su, M. (1999). Neighborhoods and child maltreatment: A multi-level study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 1019–1040. PubMed Coulton, C. J., Korbin, J. E., & Su, M. (1999). Neighborhoods and child maltreatment: A multi-level study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 1019–1040. PubMed
go back to reference Cravioto, J., Arrieta, R., (1983). Malnutrition in childhood. In: In M. Rutter (Ed.), Developmental neuropsychiatry. (pp. 32–51). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Cravioto, J., Arrieta, R., (1983). Malnutrition in childhood. In: In M. Rutter (Ed.), Developmental neuropsychiatry. (pp. 32–51). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Cronholm, P. F., Forke, C. M., Wade, R., Bair-Merritt, M. H., Davis, M., Harkins-Schwarz, M., Pachter, L. M., & Fein, J. A. (2015). Adverse childhood experiences: Expanding the concept of adversity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(3), 354–361. PubMed Cronholm, P. F., Forke, C. M., Wade, R., Bair-Merritt, M. H., Davis, M., Harkins-Schwarz, M., Pachter, L. M., & Fein, J. A. (2015). Adverse childhood experiences: Expanding the concept of adversity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(3), 354–361. PubMed
go back to reference Crouch, E., Strompolis, M., Bennett, K. J., Morse, M., & Radcliff, E. (2017). Assessing the interrelatedness of multiple types of adverse childhood experiences and odds for poor health in South Carolina adults. Child Abuse and Neglect, 65, 204–211. PubMed Crouch, E., Strompolis, M., Bennett, K. J., Morse, M., & Radcliff, E. (2017). Assessing the interrelatedness of multiple types of adverse childhood experiences and odds for poor health in South Carolina adults. Child Abuse and Neglect, 65, 204–211. PubMed
go back to reference Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Hessling, R. M., Brown, P. A., & Murry, V. (2000). Direct and moderating effects of community context on the psychological well-being of African American women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(6), 1088. PubMedPubMedCentral Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Hessling, R. M., Brown, P. A., & Murry, V. (2000). Direct and moderating effects of community context on the psychological well-being of African American women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(6), 1088. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Danese, A., & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease. Physiology and Behavior, 106, 29–39. PubMed Danese, A., & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease. Physiology and Behavior, 106, 29–39. PubMed
go back to reference DeLisi, M., Alcala, J., Kusow, A., Hochstetler, A., Heirings, M. H., Caudill, J. W., Trulson, C. R., & Baglivio, M. T. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences, commitment offense, and race/ethnicity: Are the effects crime-, race-, and ethnicity-specific? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(3), 331–343. PubMedCentral DeLisi, M., Alcala, J., Kusow, A., Hochstetler, A., Heirings, M. H., Caudill, J. W., Trulson, C. R., & Baglivio, M. T. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences, commitment offense, and race/ethnicity: Are the effects crime-, race-, and ethnicity-specific? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(3), 331–343. PubMedCentral
go back to reference DeLisi, M., & Piquero, A. R. (2011). New frontiers in criminal careers research, 2001–2011: A state-of-the-art review. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 289–301. DeLisi, M., & Piquero, A. R. (2011). New frontiers in criminal careers research, 2001–2011: A state-of-the-art review. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 289–301.
go back to reference DeMaris, A., Benson, M. L., Fox, G. L., Hill, T., & Van Wyk, J. (2003). Distal and proximal factors in domestic violence: A test of an integrated model. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(3), 652–667. DeMaris, A., Benson, M. L., Fox, G. L., Hill, T., & Van Wyk, J. (2003). Distal and proximal factors in domestic violence: A test of an integrated model. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(3), 652–667.
go back to reference Desmond, S. A., & Kubrin, C. E. (2009). The power of place: Immigrant communities and adolescent violence. The Sociological Quarterly, 50(4), 581–607. Desmond, S. A., & Kubrin, C. E. (2009). The power of place: Immigrant communities and adolescent violence. The Sociological Quarterly, 50(4), 581–607.
go back to reference Dong, M., Giles, W. H., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Williams, J. E., Chapman, D. P., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: adverse childhood experiences study. Circulaltion, 110(13), 1761–1766. Dong, M., Giles, W. H., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Williams, J. E., Chapman, D. P., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: adverse childhood experiences study. Circulaltion, 110(13), 1761–1766.
go back to reference Douglas, K., Chan, G., Gelernter, J., Arias, A. J., Anton, R. F., Poling, J., Farrer, L., & Kranzler, H.R. (2011). 5-HTTLPR as a potential moderator of the effects of adverse childhood experiences on risk of antisocial personality disorder. Psychiatric genetics, 21(5), 240–248. PubMedPubMedCentral Douglas, K., Chan, G., Gelernter, J., Arias, A. J., Anton, R. F., Poling, J., Farrer, L., & Kranzler, H.R. (2011). 5-HTTLPR as a potential moderator of the effects of adverse childhood experiences on risk of antisocial personality disorder. Psychiatric genetics, 21(5), 240–248. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Chapman, D. P., Williamson, D. F., & Giles, W. H. (2001). Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: Findings from the adverse childhood experiences study. JAMA, 286(24), 3089–3096. PubMed Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Chapman, D. P., Williamson, D. F., & Giles, W. H. (2001). Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: Findings from the adverse childhood experiences study. JAMA, 286(24), 3089–3096. PubMed
go back to reference Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Edwards, V. J., & Croft, J. B. (2002). Adverse childhood experiences and personal alcohol abuse as an adult. Addictive Behaviors, 27(5), 713–725. PubMed Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Edwards, V. J., & Croft, J. B. (2002). Adverse childhood experiences and personal alcohol abuse as an adult. Addictive Behaviors, 27(5), 713–725. PubMed
go back to reference Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., Chapman, D. P., Giles, W. H., & Anda, R. F. (2003a). Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: The adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics, 111, 564–572. PubMed Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., Chapman, D. P., Giles, W. H., & Anda, R. F. (2003a). Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: The adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics, 111, 564–572. PubMed
go back to reference Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., Giles, W. H., & Anda, R. F. (2003b). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: Evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Preventative Medicine, 37(3), 268–277. Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., Giles, W. H., & Anda, R. F. (2003b). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: Evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Preventative Medicine, 37(3), 268–277.
go back to reference Dube, S. R., Miller, J. W., Brown, D. W., Wayne, H. G., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., & Anda, R. F. (2006). Adverse childhood experiences and the association with ever using alcohol and initiating alcohol use during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(4), 444.e1–444.e10. Dube, S. R., Miller, J. W., Brown, D. W., Wayne, H. G., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., & Anda, R. F. (2006). Adverse childhood experiences and the association with ever using alcohol and initiating alcohol use during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(4), 444.e1–444.e10.
go back to reference DuBois, D. L., Holloway, B. E., Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H. (2002). Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30(2), 157–197. PubMed DuBois, D. L., Holloway, B. E., Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H. (2002). Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30(2), 157–197. PubMed
go back to reference Duke, N. N., Pettingell, S. L., McMorris, B. J., & Borowsky, I. W. (2010). Adolescent violence perpetration: Associations with multiple types of Adverse Childhood Experiences. Pediatrics, 125, e778–e787. PubMed Duke, N. N., Pettingell, S. L., McMorris, B. J., & Borowsky, I. W. (2010). Adolescent violence perpetration: Associations with multiple types of Adverse Childhood Experiences. Pediatrics, 125, e778–e787. PubMed
go back to reference Elliott, D. S., Wilson, W. J., Huizinga, D., Sampson, R. J., Elliott, A., & Rankin, B. (1996). The effects of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent development. Journal of Research in Crimean and Delinquency, 33(4), 389–426. Elliott, D. S., Wilson, W. J., Huizinga, D., Sampson, R. J., Elliott, A., & Rankin, B. (1996). The effects of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent development. Journal of Research in Crimean and Delinquency, 33(4), 389–426.
go back to reference Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59, 77–92. PubMed Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59, 77–92. PubMed
go back to reference Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2010). The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders, and sexual behavior: Implications for healthcare. In R. A. Lanius, E. Vermetten, & C. Pain. (Eds.), The hidden epidemic: The impact of early life trauma on health and disease. Cambridge University Press in Cambridge, England/UnitedKingdom. Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2010). The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders, and sexual behavior: Implications for healthcare. In R. A. Lanius, E. Vermetten, & C. Pain. (Eds.), The hidden epidemic: The impact of early life trauma on health and disease. Cambridge University Press in Cambridge, England/UnitedKingdom.
go back to reference Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Koss, M. P., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245–258. PubMed Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Koss, M. P., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245–258. PubMed
go back to reference Finkelohor, D., Shattuck, A., Turner, H., & Hamby, S. (2013). Improving the adverse childhood experiences study scale. Pediatrics, 167(1), 70–75. Finkelohor, D., Shattuck, A., Turner, H., & Hamby, S. (2013). Improving the adverse childhood experiences study scale. Pediatrics, 167(1), 70–75.
go back to reference Finkelhor, D., Shattuck, A., Turner, H., & Hamby, S. (2015). A revised inventory of adverse childhood experiences. Child Abuse and Neglect, 48, 13–21. PubMed Finkelhor, D., Shattuck, A., Turner, H., & Hamby, S. (2015). A revised inventory of adverse childhood experiences. Child Abuse and Neglect, 48, 13–21. PubMed
go back to reference Flaherty, E. G., Thompson, R., Dubowitz, H., Harvey, E. M., English, D. J., Proctor, L. J., & Runyan, D. K. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences and child health in early adolescence. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(7), 622–629. PubMedPubMedCentral Flaherty, E. G., Thompson, R., Dubowitz, H., Harvey, E. M., English, D. J., Proctor, L. J., & Runyan, D. K. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences and child health in early adolescence. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(7), 622–629. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Fox, G. L., & Benson, M. L. (2006). Household and neighborhood contexts of intimate partner violence. Public Health Reports, 121(4), 419–427. PubMedPubMedCentral Fox, G. L., & Benson, M. L. (2006). Household and neighborhood contexts of intimate partner violence. Public Health Reports, 121(4), 419–427. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Fox, B. H., Perez, N., Cass, E., Baglivio, M. T., & Epps, N. (2015). Trauma changes everything: Examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders. Child Abuse and Neglect, 46, 163–173. PubMed Fox, B. H., Perez, N., Cass, E., Baglivio, M. T., & Epps, N. (2015). Trauma changes everything: Examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders. Child Abuse and Neglect, 46, 163–173. PubMed
go back to reference Freisthler, B., Merritt, D. H., & LaScala, E. A. (2006). Understanding the ecology of child maltreatment: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Child Maltreatment, 11(3), 263–280. PubMed Freisthler, B., Merritt, D. H., & LaScala, E. A. (2006). Understanding the ecology of child maltreatment: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Child Maltreatment, 11(3), 263–280. PubMed
go back to reference Frick, P. J., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Tannenbaum, van Horn, Y., Christ, M. A. G., Hart, E. A., & Hanson, K. (1993). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: A meta-analytic review of factor analysis and cross-validation in a clinic sample. Clinical Psychological Review, 13(4), 319–340. Frick, P. J., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Tannenbaum, van Horn, Y., Christ, M. A. G., Hart, E. A., & Hanson, K. (1993). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: A meta-analytic review of factor analysis and cross-validation in a clinic sample. Clinical Psychological Review, 13(4), 319–340.
go back to reference Gary, T. L., Stark, S. A., & LaVeist, T. A. (2007). Neighborhood characteristics and mental health among African Americans and whites living in a racially integrated urban community. Health and Place, 13(2), 569–575. PubMed Gary, T. L., Stark, S. A., & LaVeist, T. A. (2007). Neighborhood characteristics and mental health among African Americans and whites living in a racially integrated urban community. Health and Place, 13(2), 569–575. PubMed
go back to reference Garrido, E. F., Weiler, L. M., & Taussig, H. N. (2018). Adverse childhood experiences and health-risk behaviors in vulnerable early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 38(5), 661–680. PubMed Garrido, E. F., Weiler, L. M., & Taussig, H. N. (2018). Adverse childhood experiences and health-risk behaviors in vulnerable early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 38(5), 661–680. PubMed
go back to reference Grevstad, J. A. (2010). Adverse childhood experiences and juvenile justice. Presentation delivered to Washington State Family Policy Council June 8, 2010. Grevstad, J. A. (2010). Adverse childhood experiences and juvenile justice. Presentation delivered to Washington State Family Policy Council June 8, 2010.
go back to reference Georgiades, K., Boyle, M. H., & Duku, E. (2007). Contextual influences on children’s mental health and school performance: The moderating effects of family immigrant status. Child Development, 78(5), 1572–1591. PubMed Georgiades, K., Boyle, M. H., & Duku, E. (2007). Contextual influences on children’s mental health and school performance: The moderating effects of family immigrant status. Child Development, 78(5), 1572–1591. PubMed
go back to reference Goodman, L. A. (1974). Exploratory latent structure analysis using both identifiable and unidentifiable models. Biometrika, 61, 215–231. Goodman, L. A. (1974). Exploratory latent structure analysis using both identifiable and unidentifiable models. Biometrika, 61, 215–231.
go back to reference Grunwald, H. E., Lockwood, B., Harris, P. W., & Mennis, J. (2010). Influences of neighborhood context, individual history and parenting behavior on recidivism among juvenile offenders. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(9), 1067–1079. PubMed Grunwald, H. E., Lockwood, B., Harris, P. W., & Mennis, J. (2010). Influences of neighborhood context, individual history and parenting behavior on recidivism among juvenile offenders. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(9), 1067–1079. PubMed
go back to reference Hagenaars, J. A., & McCutcheon, A. L. (Eds.) (2002). Applied latent class analysis. Cambridge University Press in Cambridge, England/UnitedKingdom. Hagenaars, J. A., & McCutcheon, A. L. (Eds.) (2002). Applied latent class analysis. Cambridge University Press in Cambridge, England/UnitedKingdom.
go back to reference Hazen, A. L., Connelly, C. D., Roesch, S., Hough, R., & Landsverk, J. (2009). Child maltreatment profiles and adjustment problems in high risk adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 361–378. PubMed Hazen, A. L., Connelly, C. D., Roesch, S., Hough, R., & Landsverk, J. (2009). Child maltreatment profiles and adjustment problems in high risk adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 361–378. PubMed
go back to reference Henggeler, S. W., & Borduin, C. M. (1990). Family therapy and beyond: A multisystemic approach to treating the behavior problems of children and adolescents. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Henggeler, S. W., & Borduin, C. M. (1990). Family therapy and beyond: A multisystemic approach to treating the behavior problems of children and adolescents. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
go back to reference Hertzig, M. (1983). Temperament and neurological status. In M. Rutter(Ed.), Developmental Neuropsychiatry (pp. 164–180). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Hertzig, M. (1983). Temperament and neurological status. In M. Rutter(Ed.), Developmental Neuropsychiatry (pp. 164–180). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Higgins, D. J., & McCabe, M. P. (1999). Multiple forms of child abuse and neglect: Adult retrospective reports. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 6, 547–578. Higgins, D. J., & McCabe, M. P. (1999). Multiple forms of child abuse and neglect: Adult retrospective reports. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 6, 547–578.
go back to reference Hillis, S. D., Anda, R. F., Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., Marchbanks, P. A., & Marks, J. S. (2004). The association between adverse childhood experiences and adolescent pregnancy, long-term psychosocial consequences, and fetal death. Pediatrics, 113(2), 320–327. PubMed Hillis, S. D., Anda, R. F., Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., Marchbanks, P. A., & Marks, J. S. (2004). The association between adverse childhood experiences and adolescent pregnancy, long-term psychosocial consequences, and fetal death. Pediatrics, 113(2), 320–327. PubMed
go back to reference Hipp, J. R. (2007). Income inequality, race, and place: Does the distribution of race and class within neighborhoods affect crime rates? Criminology, 45(3), 665–697. Hipp, J. R. (2007). Income inequality, race, and place: Does the distribution of race and class within neighborhoods affect crime rates? Criminology, 45(3), 665–697.
go back to reference Hobbs, G. F., Hobbs, C. J., & Wynne, J. M. (1999). Abuse of children in foster and residential care. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 1239–1252. Hobbs, G. F., Hobbs, C. J., & Wynne, J. M. (1999). Abuse of children in foster and residential care. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 1239–1252.
go back to reference Huang, H., Ryan, J. P., & Rhoden, M. (2016). Foster care, geographic neighborhood change, and the risk of delinquency. Children and Youth Services Review, 65, 32–41. Huang, H., Ryan, J. P., & Rhoden, M. (2016). Foster care, geographic neighborhood change, and the risk of delinquency. Children and Youth Services Review, 65, 32–41.
go back to reference Hughes, K., Bellis, M. A., Hardcastle, K. A., Sethi, D., Butchart, A., Mikton, C., Jones, L., & Dunne, M. P. (2017). The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Public Health, 2(8), e356–e366. PubMed Hughes, K., Bellis, M. A., Hardcastle, K. A., Sethi, D., Butchart, A., Mikton, C., Jones, L., & Dunne, M. P. (2017). The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Public Health, 2(8), e356–e366. PubMed
go back to reference Hunt, T. K. A., Slack, K. S., & Berger, L. M. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood. Child Abuse and Neglect, 67, 391–402. PubMed Hunt, T. K. A., Slack, K. S., & Berger, L. M. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood. Child Abuse and Neglect, 67, 391–402. PubMed
go back to reference Jimenez, M. E., Roy, W., Schwartz-Soicher, O., Lin, Y., & Reichman, N. E. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and ADHD diagnosis at age 9 years in a national urban sample. Academic Pediatrics, 17(4), 356–361. PubMed Jimenez, M. E., Roy, W., Schwartz-Soicher, O., Lin, Y., & Reichman, N. E. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and ADHD diagnosis at age 9 years in a national urban sample. Academic Pediatrics, 17(4), 356–361. PubMed
go back to reference Kim, J. S. (2004). Neighborhood effects on the etiology of child maltreatment: A multilevel study (Doctoral dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, 65, 3157B. Kim, J. S. (2004). Neighborhood effects on the etiology of child maltreatment: A multilevel study (Doctoral dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, 65, 3157B.
go back to reference Kraemer, G. W. (1988). Speculations on the developmental neurobiology of protest and despair. In P. Simon, P. Soubrie & D. Widlocher(Eds.), Inquiry into schizophrenia and depression: Animal models of psychiatric disorders (pp. 101–147). Basel, Switzerland: Karger. Kraemer, G. W. (1988). Speculations on the developmental neurobiology of protest and despair. In P. Simon, P. Soubrie & D. Widlocher(Eds.), Inquiry into schizophrenia and depression: Animal models of psychiatric disorders (pp. 101–147). Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
go back to reference Kubrin, C. E., & Desmond, S. A. (2015). The power of place revisited: why immigrant communities have lower levels of adolescent violence. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 13(4), 345–366. Kubrin, C. E., & Desmond, S. A. (2015). The power of place revisited: why immigrant communities have lower levels of adolescent violence. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 13(4), 345–366.
go back to reference Kubrin, C. E., & Stewart, E. A. (2006). Predicting who reoffends: The neglected role of neighborhood context in recidivism studies. Criminology, 44(1), 165–197. Kubrin, C. E., & Stewart, E. A. (2006). Predicting who reoffends: The neglected role of neighborhood context in recidivism studies. Criminology, 44(1), 165–197.
go back to reference Lee, S., Aos, S., Drake, E., Pennucci, A., Miller, M., & Anderson, L. (2012). Return on investment: Evidence-based options to improve statewide outcomes. Olympia: Washington State Institute forPublic Policy. Lee, S., Aos, S., Drake, E., Pennucci, A., Miller, M., & Anderson, L. (2012). Return on investment: Evidence-based options to improve statewide outcomes. Olympia: Washington State Institute forPublic Policy.
go back to reference Lee, M. T., & Martinez, Jr, R. (2002). Social disorganization revisited: Mapping the recent immigration and black homicide relationship in northern Miami. Sociological Focus, 35(4), 363–380. Lee, M. T., & Martinez, Jr, R. (2002). Social disorganization revisited: Mapping the recent immigration and black homicide relationship in northern Miami. Sociological Focus, 35(4), 363–380.
go back to reference Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309–337. PubMed Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309–337. PubMed
go back to reference Lewis, D. O., Shanok, S. S., Pincus, J. H., & Glaser, G. H. (1979). Violent juvenile delinquents: Psychiatric, neurological, psychological and abuse factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 2, 307–319. Lewis, D. O., Shanok, S. S., Pincus, J. H., & Glaser, G. H. (1979). Violent juvenile delinquents: Psychiatric, neurological, psychological and abuse factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 2, 307–319.
go back to reference Lo, Y., Mendell, N., & Rubin, D. (2001). Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika, 88, 767–778. Lo, Y., Mendell, N., & Rubin, D. (2001). Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika, 88, 767–778.
go back to reference Logan-Greene, P., Tennyson, R. L., Nurius, P. S., & Borja, S. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences, coping resources, and mental health problems among court-involved youth. Child Youth Care Forum, 46, 923–946. PubMedCentral Logan-Greene, P., Tennyson, R. L., Nurius, P. S., & Borja, S. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences, coping resources, and mental health problems among court-involved youth. Child Youth Care Forum, 46, 923–946. PubMedCentral
go back to reference Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1998). An ecological transactional analysis of children and contexts: The longitudinal interplay among child maltreatment, community violence, and children’s symptomology. Developmental Psychopathology, 10, 235–257. Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1998). An ecological transactional analysis of children and contexts: The longitudinal interplay among child maltreatment, community violence, and children’s symptomology. Developmental Psychopathology, 10, 235–257.
go back to reference MacDonald, J. M., Hipp, J. R., & Gill, C. (2013). The effects of immigrant concentration on changes in neighborhood crime rates. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(2), 191–215. MacDonald, J. M., Hipp, J. R., & Gill, C. (2013). The effects of immigrant concentration on changes in neighborhood crime rates. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(2), 191–215.
go back to reference Massey, D. S. (2001). The prodigal paradigm returns: Ecology comes back to sociology. In A. Booth & A. Crouter (Eds.), Does it take a village? Community effects on children, adolescents, and families (pp. 41–48). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Massey, D. S. (2001). The prodigal paradigm returns: Ecology comes back to sociology. In A. Booth & A. Crouter (Eds.), Does it take a village? Community effects on children, adolescents, and families (pp. 41–48). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
go back to reference Meany, M. J., Aitken, D. H., van Berkel, C., Bhatnagar, S., & Sapolsky, R. M. (1988). Effect of neonatal handling on age-related impairments associated with the hippocampus. Science, 239, 766–768. Meany, M. J., Aitken, D. H., van Berkel, C., Bhatnagar, S., & Sapolsky, R. M. (1988). Effect of neonatal handling on age-related impairments associated with the hippocampus. Science, 239, 766–768.
go back to reference Mears, D. P., Wang, X., Hay, C., & Bales, W. D. (2008). Social ecology and recidivism: Implications for prisoner reentry. Criminology, 46(2), 301–340. Mears, D. P., Wang, X., Hay, C., & Bales, W. D. (2008). Social ecology and recidivism: Implications for prisoner reentry. Criminology, 46(2), 301–340.
go back to reference Menezes, N. M., Georgiades, K., & Boyle, M. H. (2011). The influence of immigrant status and concentration on psychiatric disorder in Canada: a multi-level analysis. Psychological Medicine, 41(10), 2221–2231. PubMed Menezes, N. M., Georgiades, K., & Boyle, M. H. (2011). The influence of immigrant status and concentration on psychiatric disorder in Canada: a multi-level analysis. Psychological Medicine, 41(10), 2221–2231. PubMed
go back to reference Merrick, M. T., Ports, K. A., Ford, D. C., Afifi, T. O., Gershoff, E. T., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2017). Unpacking the impact of adverse childhood experiences on adult mental health. Child Abuse and Neglect, 69, 10–19. PubMed Merrick, M. T., Ports, K. A., Ford, D. C., Afifi, T. O., Gershoff, E. T., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2017). Unpacking the impact of adverse childhood experiences on adult mental health. Child Abuse and Neglect, 69, 10–19. PubMed
go back to reference Metzler, M., Merrick, M. T., Klevens, J., Ports, K. A., & Ford, D. C. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and life opportunities: Shifting the narrative. Children and Youth Services Review, 72, 141–149. Metzler, M., Merrick, M. T., Klevens, J., Ports, K. A., & Ford, D. C. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and life opportunities: Shifting the narrative. Children and Youth Services Review, 72, 141–149.
go back to reference Milner, J. S., & McCanne, T. R. (1991). Neuropsychological correlates of physical child abuse. In J. S. Milner(Ed.), Neuropsychology of aggression (pp. 131–145). Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic. Milner, J. S., & McCanne, T. R. (1991). Neuropsychological correlates of physical child abuse. In J. S. Milner(Ed.), Neuropsychology of aggression (pp. 131–145). Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic.
go back to reference Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674–701. PubMed Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674–701. PubMed
go back to reference Molina, K. M., Alegría, M., & Chen, C. N. (2012). Neighborhood context and substance use disorders: A comparative analysis of racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 125, S35–S43. PubMedPubMedCentral Molina, K. M., Alegría, M., & Chen, C. N. (2012). Neighborhood context and substance use disorders: A comparative analysis of racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 125, S35–S43. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Molnar, B. E., Buka, S. L., Brennan, R. T., Holton, J. K., & Earls, F. (2003). A multilevel study of neighborhoods and parent-to-child physical aggression: Results from the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods. Child Maltreatment, 8, 84–97. PubMed Molnar, B. E., Buka, S. L., Brennan, R. T., Holton, J. K., & Earls, F. (2003). A multilevel study of neighborhoods and parent-to-child physical aggression: Results from the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods. Child Maltreatment, 8, 84–97. PubMed
go back to reference Molnar, B. E., Goerge, R. M., Gilsanz, P., Hill, A., Subramanian, S. V., Holton, J. K., Duncan, D. T., Beatriz, E. D., & Beardslee, W. R. (2016). Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 51, 41–53. PubMed Molnar, B. E., Goerge, R. M., Gilsanz, P., Hill, A., Subramanian, S. V., Holton, J. K., Duncan, D. T., Beatriz, E. D., & Beardslee, W. R. (2016). Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 51, 41–53. PubMed
go back to reference Morenoff, J. D., Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2001). Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and the spatial dynamics of urban violence. Criminology, 39, 517–559. Morenoff, J. D., Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2001). Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and the spatial dynamics of urban violence. Criminology, 39, 517–559.
go back to reference Mullen, P. E., Martin, J. L., Anderson, J. C., Romans, S. E., & Herbison, G. P. (1996). The long-term impact of the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children: A community study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20(1), 7–21. PubMed Mullen, P. E., Martin, J. L., Anderson, J. C., Romans, S. E., & Herbison, G. P. (1996). The long-term impact of the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children: A community study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20(1), 7–21. PubMed
go back to reference Mustaine, E. E., Tewksbury, R., Huff-Corzine, L., Corzine, J., & Marshall, H. (2014). Community characteristics and child sexual assault: Social disorganization and age. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(2), 173–183. Mustaine, E. E., Tewksbury, R., Huff-Corzine, L., Corzine, J., & Marshall, H. (2014). Community characteristics and child sexual assault: Social disorganization and age. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(2), 173–183.
go back to reference Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
go back to reference Needleman, H. L., & Beringer, D. C. (1981). The epidemiology of low-level lead exposure in childhood. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 20, 496–512. Needleman, H. L., & Beringer, D. C. (1981). The epidemiology of low-level lead exposure in childhood. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 20, 496–512.
go back to reference Nooner, K. B., Litrownik, A. J., Thompson, R., Margolis, B., English, D. J., Knight, E. D., Everson, M. D., & Roesch, S. (2010). Youth self-report of physical and sexual abuse: A latent class analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34(3), 146–154. PubMed Nooner, K. B., Litrownik, A. J., Thompson, R., Margolis, B., English, D. J., Knight, E. D., Everson, M. D., & Roesch, S. (2010). Youth self-report of physical and sexual abuse: A latent class analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34(3), 146–154. PubMed
go back to reference Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007a). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(4), 535–569. Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007a). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(4), 535–569.
go back to reference Nylund, K., Bellmore, A., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2007b). Subtypes, severity, and structural stability of peer victimization: What does latent class analysis say? Child Development, 78(6), 1706–1722. PubMed Nylund, K., Bellmore, A., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2007b). Subtypes, severity, and structural stability of peer victimization: What does latent class analysis say? Child Development, 78(6), 1706–1722. PubMed
go back to reference Olds, D., Donelan-McCall, N., O’Brien, R., MacMillan, H., Jack, S., Jenkins, T., Dunlap, W. P., O’Fallon, M., Yost, E., Thorland, B., Pinto, F., Gasbarro, M., Baca, P., Melnick, A., & Beeber, L. (2013). Improving the Nurse–Family Partnership in Community Practice. Pediatrics, 132(S2), S110–S117. PubMedPubMedCentral Olds, D., Donelan-McCall, N., O’Brien, R., MacMillan, H., Jack, S., Jenkins, T., Dunlap, W. P., O’Fallon, M., Yost, E., Thorland, B., Pinto, F., Gasbarro, M., Baca, P., Melnick, A., & Beeber, L. (2013). Improving the Nurse–Family Partnership in Community Practice. Pediatrics, 132(S2), S110–S117. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Painter, K., & Scannapieco, M. (2013). Child maltreatment: The neurobiological aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 10, 276–284. PubMed Painter, K., & Scannapieco, M. (2013). Child maltreatment: The neurobiological aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 10, 276–284. PubMed
go back to reference Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., & Fisher, P. A. (2008). Psychosocial and cognitive functioning of children with specific profiles of maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 32, 958–971. PubMed Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., & Fisher, P. A. (2008). Psychosocial and cognitive functioning of children with specific profiles of maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 32, 958–971. PubMed
go back to reference Putnam, F. W. (2006). The impact of trauma on child development. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 57, 1–11. Putnam, F. W. (2006). The impact of trauma on child development. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 57, 1–11.
go back to reference Reavis, J. A., Looman, J., Franco, K., & Rojas, B. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences and adult criminality: How long must we live before we possess our own lives? The Permanente Journal, 17(2), 44–48. PubMedPubMedCentral Reavis, J. A., Looman, J., Franco, K., & Rojas, B. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences and adult criminality: How long must we live before we possess our own lives? The Permanente Journal, 17(2), 44–48. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Rodning, C., Beckwith, L., & Howard, J. (1989). Characteristics of attachment organization and play organization in prenatally drug exposed toddlers. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 277–289. Rodning, C., Beckwith, L., & Howard, J. (1989). Characteristics of attachment organization and play organization in prenatally drug exposed toddlers. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 277–289.
go back to reference Romano, E., Zoccolillo, M., & Paquette, D. (2006). Histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in pregnant adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 329–336. PubMed Romano, E., Zoccolillo, M., & Paquette, D. (2006). Histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in pregnant adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 329–336. PubMed
go back to reference Rose, D. R., & Clear, T. R. (1998). Incarceration, social capital, and crime: Implications for social disorganization theory. Criminology, 36(3), 441–480. Rose, D. R., & Clear, T. R. (1998). Incarceration, social capital, and crime: Implications for social disorganization theory. Criminology, 36(3), 441–480.
go back to reference Ross, C. E. (2000). Neighborhood disadvantage and adult depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41(2), 177–187. Ross, C. E. (2000). Neighborhood disadvantage and adult depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41(2), 177–187.
go back to reference Ross, C. E., Reynolds, J. R., & Geis, K. J. (2000). The contingent meaning of neighborhood stability for residents’ psychological well-being. American Sociological Review, 65(4), 581–597. Ross, C. E., Reynolds, J. R., & Geis, K. J. (2000). The contingent meaning of neighborhood stability for residents’ psychological well-being. American Sociological Review, 65(4), 581–597.
go back to reference Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social-disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94(4), 774–802. Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social-disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94(4), 774–802.
go back to reference Sampson, R., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime. Science, 277, 918–924. PubMed Sampson, R., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime. Science, 277, 918–924. PubMed
go back to reference Sampson, R. J., Sharkey, P., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2008). Durable effects of concentrated disadvantage on verbal ability among African-American children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(3), 845–852. Sampson, R. J., Sharkey, P., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2008). Durable effects of concentrated disadvantage on verbal ability among African-American children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(3), 845–852.
go back to reference Saywitz, K., Mannarino, A., Berliner, L., & Cohen, J. (2000). Treatment for sexually abused children. American Psychologist, 55, 1040–1049. PubMed Saywitz, K., Mannarino, A., Berliner, L., & Cohen, J. (2000). Treatment for sexually abused children. American Psychologist, 55, 1040–1049. PubMed
go back to reference Schwarz, G. (1978). Estimating the dimension of a model. Annals of Statistics, 6, 461–464. Schwarz, G. (1978). Estimating the dimension of a model. Annals of Statistics, 6, 461–464.
go back to reference Sclove, S. L. (1987). Application of model-selection criteria to some problems in multivariate analysis. Psychometrika, 52, 333–343. Sclove, S. L. (1987). Application of model-selection criteria to some problems in multivariate analysis. Psychometrika, 52, 333–343.
go back to reference Shalev, I., Moffitt, T., Sugden, K., Williams, B., Houts, R. M., Danese, A., Mill, J., Arseneault, L., & Caspi, A. (2013). Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: A longitudinal study. Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 576–581. PubMed Shalev, I., Moffitt, T., Sugden, K., Williams, B., Houts, R. M., Danese, A., Mill, J., Arseneault, L., & Caspi, A. (2013). Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: A longitudinal study. Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 576–581. PubMed
go back to reference Shonkoff, J. P., Boyce, W. T., & McEwen, B. S. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: Building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. JAMA, 301(21), 2252–2259. PubMed Shonkoff, J. P., Boyce, W. T., & McEwen, B. S. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: Building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. JAMA, 301(21), 2252–2259. PubMed
go back to reference Silver, E., Mulvey, E. P., & Swanson, J. W. (2002). Neighborhood structural characteristics and mental disorder: Faris and Dunham revisited. Social Science and Medicine, 55(8), 1457–1470. PubMed Silver, E., Mulvey, E. P., & Swanson, J. W. (2002). Neighborhood structural characteristics and mental disorder: Faris and Dunham revisited. Social Science and Medicine, 55(8), 1457–1470. PubMed
go back to reference Stewart, A. (1983). Severe perinatal hazards. In M. Rutter(Ed.), Developmental neuropsychiatry (pp. 15–31). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Stewart, A. (1983). Severe perinatal hazards. In M. Rutter(Ed.), Developmental neuropsychiatry (pp. 15–31). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Stith, S. M., Liu, T., Davies, L. C., Boykin, E. L., Alder, M. C., Harris, J. M., Som, A., McPherson, M., & Dees, J. (2009). Risk factors in child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(1), 13–29. Stith, S. M., Liu, T., Davies, L. C., Boykin, E. L., Alder, M. C., Harris, J. M., Som, A., McPherson, M., & Dees, J. (2009). Risk factors in child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(1), 13–29.
go back to reference Smith, C., & Thornberry, T. P. (1995). The relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent involvement in delinquency. Criminology, 33(4), 451–481. Smith, C., & Thornberry, T. P. (1995). The relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent involvement in delinquency. Criminology, 33(4), 451–481.
go back to reference Stockdale, S. E., Wells, K. B., Tang, L., Belin, T. R., Zhang, L., & Sherbourne, C. D. (2007). The importance of social context: neighborhood stressors, stress-buffering mechanisms, and alcohol, drug, and mental health disorders. Social Science and Medicine, 65(9), 1867–1881. PubMed Stockdale, S. E., Wells, K. B., Tang, L., Belin, T. R., Zhang, L., & Sherbourne, C. D. (2007). The importance of social context: neighborhood stressors, stress-buffering mechanisms, and alcohol, drug, and mental health disorders. Social Science and Medicine, 65(9), 1867–1881. PubMed
go back to reference Tarter, R. E., Hegedus, A. M., Winsten, N. E., & Alterman, A. L. (1984). Neuropsychological, personality and familial characteristics of physically abused delinquents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 668–674. PubMed Tarter, R. E., Hegedus, A. M., Winsten, N. E., & Alterman, A. L. (1984). Neuropsychological, personality and familial characteristics of physically abused delinquents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 668–674. PubMed
go back to reference Teicher, M. H., Andersen, S. L., Polcari, A., Anderson, C. M., Navalta, C. P., & Kim, D. M. (2003). The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 33–44. Teicher, M. H., Andersen, S. L., Polcari, A., Anderson, C. M., Navalta, C. P., & Kim, D. M. (2003). The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 33–44.
go back to reference Tillyer, M. S., & Vose, B. (2011). Social ecology, individual risk, and recidivism: A multilevel examination of main and moderating influences. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39(5), 452–459. Tillyer, M. S., & Vose, B. (2011). Social ecology, individual risk, and recidivism: A multilevel examination of main and moderating influences. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39(5), 452–459.
go back to reference Trickett, P. K. (1998). Multiple maltreatment and the development of self and emotion regulation. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 2, 171–187. Trickett, P. K. (1998). Multiple maltreatment and the development of self and emotion regulation. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 2, 171–187.
go back to reference Van Wyk, J. A., Benson, M. L., Fox, G. L., & DeMaris, A. (2003). Detangling individual-, partner-, and community-level correlates of partner violence. Crimean and Delinquency, 49(3), 412–438. Van Wyk, J. A., Benson, M. L., Fox, G. L., & DeMaris, A. (2003). Detangling individual-, partner-, and community-level correlates of partner violence. Crimean and Delinquency, 49(3), 412–438.
go back to reference Vermunt, J. K. (2010). Latent class modeling with covariates: Two improved three-step approaches. Political Analysis, 18, 450–469. Vermunt, J. K. (2010). Latent class modeling with covariates: Two improved three-step approaches. Political Analysis, 18, 450–469.
go back to reference Vermunt, J. K., & Magidson, J. (2002). Latent class cluster analysis. Applied Latent Class Analysis, 11, 89–106. Vermunt, J. K., & Magidson, J. (2002). Latent class cluster analysis. Applied Latent Class Analysis, 11, 89–106.
go back to reference Wade, R., Shea, J. A., Rubin, D., & Wood, J. (2014). Adverse childhood experiences of low-income urban youth. Pediatrics, 134, e13–e20. PubMed Wade, R., Shea, J. A., Rubin, D., & Wood, J. (2014). Adverse childhood experiences of low-income urban youth. Pediatrics, 134, e13–e20. PubMed
go back to reference Whitfield, C. L., Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2005). Adverse childhood experiences and hallucinations. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29, 797–810. PubMed Whitfield, C. L., Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2005). Adverse childhood experiences and hallucinations. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29, 797–810. PubMed
go back to reference Wolff, K. T., & Baglivio, M. T. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences, negative emotionality, and pathways to juvenile recidivism. Crimean and Delinquency, 63(12), 1459–1521. Wolff, K. T., & Baglivio, M. T. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences, negative emotionality, and pathways to juvenile recidivism. Crimean and Delinquency, 63(12), 1459–1521.
go back to reference Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., Intravia, J., & Piquero, A. R. (2015). The protective impact of immigrant concentration on juvenile recidivism: A statewide analysis of youth offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(6), 522–531. Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., Intravia, J., & Piquero, A. R. (2015). The protective impact of immigrant concentration on juvenile recidivism: A statewide analysis of youth offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(6), 522–531.
go back to reference Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., & Piquero, A. R. (2017b). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and recidivism in a sample of juvenile offenders in community-based treatment. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(11), 1210–1242. PubMed Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., & Piquero, A. R. (2017b). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and recidivism in a sample of juvenile offenders in community-based treatment. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(11), 1210–1242. PubMed
go back to reference Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., Piquero, A. R., Vaughn, M. G., & DeLisi, M. (2016). The triple crown of antisocial behavior: Effortful control, negative emotionality, and community disadvantage. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 14(4), 350–366. Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., Piquero, A. R., Vaughn, M. G., & DeLisi, M. (2016). The triple crown of antisocial behavior: Effortful control, negative emotionality, and community disadvantage. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 14(4), 350–366.
go back to reference Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., Vaughn, M. G., DeLisi, M., & Piquero, A. R. (2017c). For males only? The search for serious, violent, and chronic female juvenile offenders. Journal of Developmental and Life Course Criminology, 3, 168–195. Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., Vaughn, M. G., DeLisi, M., & Piquero, A. R. (2017c). For males only? The search for serious, violent, and chronic female juvenile offenders. Journal of Developmental and Life Course Criminology, 3, 168–195.
go back to reference Wright, K. A., & Rodriguez, N. (2014). A closer look at the paradox: Examining immigration and youth reoffending in Arizona. Justice Quarterly, 31(5), 882–904. Wright, K. A., & Rodriguez, N. (2014). A closer look at the paradox: Examining immigration and youth reoffending in Arizona. Justice Quarterly, 31(5), 882–904.
go back to reference Yeates, K. O., Bigler, E. D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C. A., Rubin, K. H., Stancin, T., Taylor, H. G., & Vannatta, K. (2007). Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: A heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 133(3), 535–556. PubMedPubMedCentral Yeates, K. O., Bigler, E. D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C. A., Rubin, K. H., Stancin, T., Taylor, H. G., & Vannatta, K. (2007). Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: A heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 133(3), 535–556. PubMedPubMedCentral
Metagegevens
Titel
The Effects of Neighborhood Context on Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Among Adolescents Involved in the Juvenile Justice System: Latent Classes and Contextual Effects
Auteurs
Kevin T. Wolff
Celina Cuevas
Jonathan Intravia
Michael T. Baglivio
Nathan Epps
Publicatiedatum
02-07-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 11/2018
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0887-5

Andere artikelen Uitgave 11/2018

Journal of Youth and Adolescence 11/2018 Naar de uitgave