Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
In the past two decades, there has been a significant amount of research on children’s relational aggression, which has been found to be associated with psychosocial problems. Longitudinal studies have examined changes in relational aggression during early adolescence in relation to individual characteristics; however, most studies compare individual differences between people with regard to rates of relational aggression. A shortcoming to the current literature is the lack of studies that use a multilevel approach to examine individual differences (between-person) as well as the extent to which individuals deviate from their own typical levels (within-person) over time. In this study, within- and between-person psychological and peer-related predictors of rates of relational aggression over time were examined. Participants included 1,655 students in 5th–8th grade (mean age: 13.01) from four public middle schools in the Midwest, which consisted 828 females and 827 males. In terms of race and ethnicity, 819 (49.5%) were African Americans, followed by 571 (34.5%) Whites, and 265 (16%) Others. Longitudinal data were collected over four waves across two years of middle school. The findings indicated that contrary to the hypothesis that relational aggression would increase over time, there was no significant growth across time. Age, gender, and race were not associated with relational aggression over time; however, consistent with the Social Cognitive Theory, changes in within-person impulsivity, anger, and peer delinquency were all positively related to increases in relational aggression. At the between-person level of analysis, depressive symptoms and peer delinquency were related to relational aggression. Findings suggest that school-based programs that address anger management, impulsivity, empathy, and victimization could help prevent relational aggression.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Archer, J., & Coyne, S. M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 212–230. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0903_2. CrossRefPubMed
Bandura, A. (1983). Psychological mechanisms of aggression. In R. G. Green & E. I. Donnerstein (Eds.), Aggression: theoretical and empirical reviews (pp. 1–40). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bowie, B. H. (2010). Understanding the gender differences in pathways to social deviancy: relational aggression and emotion regulation. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 24, 27–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2009.04.007. CrossRefPubMed
Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Doyle, A. B., Markiewicz, D., & Bukowski, W. M. (2002). Same-sex peer relations and romantic relationships during early adolescence: Interactive links to emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 48, 77–103. https://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2002.0001. CrossRef
Brown, B. B., & Larson, J. (2009). Peer relationships in adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed., Volume 2: contextual influences on adolescent development (pp. 74–103). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Camodeca, M., & Goossens, F. A. (2005). Aggression, social cognitions, anger and sadness in bullies and victims. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 186–197. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00347.x. CrossRefPubMed
Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: a meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to adjustment. Child Development, 79, 1185–1229. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01184.x. CrossRefPubMed
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74. CrossRef
Crick, N. R., Werner, N., Casas, J., O’Brien, K., Nelson, D., Grotpeter, J., & Markon, K. (1999). Childhood aggression and gender: a new look at an old problem. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 45, 75–141.
Dodge, K. A., Lochman, J. E., Harnish, J. D., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1997). Reactive and proactive aggression in school children and psychiatrically impaired chronically assaultive youth. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 37–51. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843x.106.1.37. CrossRefPubMed
Elliott, D. S. (1990). National youth survey. Institute of Behavioral Science; University of Colorado, Boulder..
Fanti, K. A., & Henrich, C. C. (2010). Trajectories of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from age 2 to age 12: findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1159–1175. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020659. CrossRefPubMed
Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Stuhlmacher, A. F., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Halpert, J. A. (2003). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: moving from markers to mechanisms of risk. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 447–466. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.3.447. CrossRefPubMed
Hoffman, L., & Stawski, R. S. (2009). Persons as contexts: evaluating between-person and within-person effects in longitudinal analysis. Research in Human Development, 6(2-3), 97–120. CrossRef
Juliano, M., Werner, R. S., & Cassidy, K. W. (2006). Early correlates of preschool aggressive behavior according to type of aggression and measurement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 395–410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2006.06.008. CrossRef
Kandel, D., Davies, M., & Baydar, N. (1990). The creation of interpersonal contexts: homophily in dyadic relationships in adolescence and young adulthood. In L. Robins & M. Rutter (Eds.), Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adolescence (pp. 221–241). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kaukiainen, A., Bjorkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K., Osterman, K., Salmivalli, C., Rothberg, S., & Ahlbom, A. (1999). The relationships between social intelligence, empathy, and three types of aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 81–89. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1999)25:2<81::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-M. CrossRef
Kawabata, Y., Tseng, W. L., & Crick, N. R. (2014). Mechanisms and processes of relational and physical victimization, depressive symptoms, and children’s relational-interdependent self-construals: implications for peer relationships and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 619–634. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414000273. CrossRefPubMed
Maccoby, E. E. (2004). Aggression in the context of gender development. In M. Putallaz & K. L. Bierman (Eds.), Aggression, antisocial behavior and violence among girls: a developmental perspective (pp. 3–22). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Marshall, N. A., Arnold, D. H., Rolon-Arroyo, B., & Griffith, S. F. (2015). The association between relational aggression and internalizing symptoms: a review and meta-analysis. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 34(2), 135–160. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2015.34.2.135. CrossRef
Murray‐Close, D., Nelson, D. A., Ostrov, J. M., Casas, J. F., & Crick, N. R. (2016). Relational aggression: a developmental psychopathology perspective. Developmental Psychopathology, 4, 66–722.
Orobio de Castro, B. (2000). Social information processing and emotion in antisocial boys (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Free University.
Orpinas, P. (1993). Skills training and social influences for violence prevention in middle schools. A curriculum evaluation (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Houston: University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health.
Osterman, K., Bjorkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M., Kaukiainen, A., Huesmann, L. R., & Fraczek, A. (1994). Peer and self-estimated aggression and victimization in 8-year-old children from five ethnic groups. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 411–428. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-2337(1994)20:6<411::AID-AB2480200602>3.0.CO;2-4. CrossRef
Ostrov, J. M., Gentile, D. A., & Crick, N. R. (2006). Media exposure, aggression and prosocial behavior during early childhood: a longitudinal study. Social Development, 15, 612–627. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2006.00360.x. CrossRef
Pellegrini, A. D., Bartini, M., & Brooks, F. (1999). School bullies, victims, and aggressive victims: factors relating to group affiliation and victimization in early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 216–224. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.52. CrossRef
Perry-Parrish, C., & Zeman, J. (2011). Relations among sadness regulation, peer acceptance, and social functioning in early adolescence: the role of gender. Social Development, 20, 135–153. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00568.x. CrossRef
Perry, D. G., & Perry, L. C. (1987). Applications of Dodge’s social information processing model of social competence to the study of prosocial behavior in children. Paper presented at the Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development, Tokyo, Japan (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 289 621).
Pettit, G. S., Polaha, J. A., & Mize, J. (2001). Perceptual and attributional processes in aggression and conduct problems. In J. Hill & B. Maugham (Eds.), Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence (pp. 292–319). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Prinstein, J. M., Boergers, J., & Vernberg, M. E. (2001). Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: social-psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 479–491. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3004_05. CrossRefPubMed
Putallaz, M., Grimes, C. L., Foster, K. J., Kupersmidt, J. B., Coie, J. D., & Dearing, K. (2007). Overt and relational aggression and victimization: multiple perspectives within the school setting. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 523–547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2007.05.003. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Spieker, S. J., Campbell, S. B., Vandergrift, N., Pierce, K. M., Cauffman, E., Susman, E. J., & Roisman, G. I. (2012). Relational aggression in middle childhood: predictors and adolescent outcomes. Social Development, 21, 354–375. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467.9507.2011.00631.x. CrossRefPubMed
Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Nansel, T. R. (2009). School bullying among adolescents in the United States: physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 368–375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.03.021. CrossRefPubMed
Werner, N. E., & Crick, N. R. (2004). Maladaptive peer relationships and the development of relational and physical aggression during middle childhood. Social Development, 13, 494–514. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2004.00280.x. CrossRef
Yeung, R. S., & Leadbeater, B. J. (2007). Does hostile attributional bias for relational provocations mediate the short-term association between relational victimization and aggression in preadolescence? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 973–983. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9162-2. CrossRef
Zhang, A., Musu-Gillette, L., & Oudekerk, B. A. (2016). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2015 (NCES 2016-079/NCJ 249758). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
- Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Explore Relational Aggression across Early Adolescence: A Within- and Between-Person Analysis
Dorothy L. Espelage
Gabriel J. Merrin
Jun Sung Hong
Stella M. Resko
- Springer US