Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The authors sincerely thank Pat Harwerth, director and teacher, and Brooksie Key, teacher, for allowing us unlimited access to their students, and the students who participated in this study and their parents. Materials for this project were provided by the College of Education and Human Development at the University of Texas at San Antonio.
Students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently demonstrate language delays (American Psychiatric Association 2000). This study investigated the effects of a Direct Instruction (DI) language program implemented with elementary students with ASD. There is little research in the area of DI as a language intervention for students with ASD. This study examined the effectiveness of DI with regard to students’ oral language skills, specifically the identification of materials of which objects were made. A single-subject changing criterion design was employed. A functional relation between DI and oral language skills was demonstrated through replication of skill increase over three criterion changes and across three students. The results and their implications are discussed further.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merril Prentice Hall.
American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Benner, G. J., Trout, A., Nordness, P. D., Nelson, J. R., Epstein, M. H., Knobel, M., et al. (2002). The effects of the Language for Learning program on the receptive language skills of kindergarten children. Journal of Direct Instruction, 2, 67–74.
Brown, L., Sherbenou, R. J., & Johnsen, S. K. (1997). Manual for the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (3rd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E. J., & Tarver, S. (2004). Direct instruction reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Engelmann, S., Haddox, P., Hanner, S., & Osborn, J. (2002). Corrective reading thinking basics: Comprehension level A. Columbus, OH: SRA/McGraw-Hill.
Engelmann, S., & Osborn, J. (1999). Language for Learning. Columbus, OH: SRA/McGraw-Hill.
Flores, M. M., & Ganz, J. B. (2007). Effectiveness of direct instruction for teaching statement inference, use of facts, and analogies to students with developmental disabilities and reading delays. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22(4), 244–251. CrossRef
Fredrick, L. D., Keel, M. C., & Neel, J. H. (2002). Making the most of instructional time: Teachign reading at an accelerated rate to students at risk. Journal of Direct Instruction, 2, 57–63.
Grossen, B. (2004). Success of a Direct Instruction model at a secondary level school with high-risk students. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 20, 161–178. doi: 10.1080/10573560490262091.
Hammill, D., & Newcomer, P. L. (1997). Test of Language Development-Intermediate (3rd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Harris, C. A., Miller, S. P., & Mercer, C. D. (1995). Teaching initial multiplication skills to students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 10, 180–196.
Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lord, C., Risi, S., & Pickles, A. (2004). Trajectory of language development in autistic spectrum disorders. In M. L. Rice & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies (pp. 1–38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Mercer, C. D., & Miller, S. P. (1992a). Teaching students with learning problems in math to acquire, understand, and apply basic math facts. Remedial and Special Education, 13, 19–35.
Mercer, C. D., & Miller, S. P. (1992b). Teaching students with learning problems in math to acquire, understand, and apply basic math facts. Remedial and Special Education, 13, 19–35. CrossRef
Miller, S. P., & Mercer, C. D. (1993a). Using data to learn about concrete-semiconcrete-abstract instruction for students with math disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 8, 89–96.
Miller, S. P., & Mercer, C. D. (1993b). Mnemonics: Enhancing the math performance of students with learning difficulties. Intervention in School and Clinic, 29, 78–82.
Nation, K., & Norbury, C. F. (2005). Why reading comprehension fails: Insights from developmental disorders. Topics in Language Disorders, 25, 21–32. CrossRef
Richards, S. B., Taylor, R. L., Ramasamy, R., & Richards, R. Y. (1999). Single subject research: Applications in educational and clinical settings. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Group/Thomson Learning.
Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1988). Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., & Casto, G. (1987). The quantitative synthesis of single-subject research: Methodology and validation. Remedial and Special Education, 8, 24–33. CrossRef
Stein, M., Silbert, J., & Carnine, D. (1997). Designing effective mathematics instruction: A Direct Instruction approach (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Waldron-Soler, K. M., Martella, R. C., Marchand-Martella, N. E., Tso, M. E., Warner, D. A., & Miller, D. E. (2002). Effects of a 15-week Language for Learning implementation with children in an integrated preschool. Journal of Direct Instruction, 2, 75–86.
- The Effectiveness of Direct Instruction for Teaching Language to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Identifying Materials
Jennifer B. Ganz
Margaret M. Flores
- Springer US