Personality traits are rather stable dispositions in adulthood, while self-efficacy and adherence may be modified through targeted interventions. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) serves as a vital outcome measure. The present aim was to explore the function of self-efficacy and adherence as mediators for the influencing effect of personality traits on HRQL in people with chronic disease.
An epidemiological sample of 786 persons completed questionnaires on personality, general self-efficacy, adherence behaviour and HRQL. Data were statistically analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analyses and path models.
Self-efficacy mediated the effect of Extraversion and Conscientiousness on mental HRQL. Neuroticism had a direct effect on both physical and mental HRQL. Adherence partially mediated the effect of both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness on mental HRQL.
The mental HRQL in people scoring low on Extraversion or low on Conscientiousness could be improved by strengthening general self-efficacy. Increasing adherence in people scoring low on Agreeableness or Conscientiousness could improve their mental HRQL, but the improvement was small and may be of lesser clinical relevance. These results argue for personalized interventions intended to positively affect health outcomes in people with chronic disease.