Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Posttraumatic stress disorder’s (PTSD) four-factor dysphoria model has substantial empirical support (reviewed in Elhai & Palmieri, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 849–854, 2011; Yufik & Simms, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 764–776, 2010). However, debatable is whether the model’s dysphoria factor adequately captures all of PTSD’s emotional distress (e.g., Marshall et al., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(1), 126–135, 2010), which is relevant to understanding the assessment and psychopathology of PTSD. Thus, the present study assessed the factor-level relationship between PTSD and emotional distress in 818 children/adolescents attending school in the vicinity of the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The effective sample had a mean age of 12.85 years (SD = 1.33), with the majority being male (n = 435, 53.8 %). PTSD and emotional distress were measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) assessed the PTSD and BSI-18 model fit; Wald tests assessed hypothesized PTSD-distress latent-level relations; and invariance testing examined PTSD-distress parameter differences using age, gender and direct exposure as moderators. There were no moderating effects for the PTSD-distress structural parameters. BSI-18’s depression and somatization factors related more to PTSD’s dysphoria than PTSD’s avoidance factor. The results emphasize assessing for specificity and distress variance of PTSD factors on a continuum, rather than assuming dysphoria factor’s complete accountability for PTSD’s inherent distress. Additionally, PTSD’s dysphoria factor related more to BSI-18’s depression than BSI-18’s anxiety/somatization factors; this may explain PTSD’s comorbidity mechanism with depressive disorders.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Acharya, A., Mandal, S., & Mehta, A. (2009). Terrorist attacks in Mumbai: Picking up the pieces. In Singapore: Internatioanal Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research. S. Rajaratnam School for International Studies. Nanyang Technological University.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beins, B. C. (2011). Methodological and conceptual issues in cross-cultural research. In K. D. Keith (Ed.), Cross-cultural psychology: Contemporary themes and perspectives (pp. 37–55). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.
Biehn, T. L., Contractor, A. A., Elhai, J. D., Tamburrino, M., Fine, T. H., & Prescott, M. R. (2013). Relations between the underlying dimensions of PTSD and major depression using an epidemiological survey of deployed Ohio National Guard Soldiers. Journal of Affective Disorders, 144, 106–111. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.06.013. PubMedCrossRef
Brislin, R. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185–216. CrossRef
Derogatis, L. R. (2001). BSI 18. Brief Symptom Inventory 18. Administration, scoring and procedures manual. Bloomington: Pearson.
Durá, E., Andreu, Y., Galdón, M. J., Ferrando, M., Murgui, S., Poveda, R., et al. (2006). Psychological assessment of patients with temporomandibular disorders: Confirmatory analysis of the dimensional structure of the brief Symptoms Inventory 18. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 365–370. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.10.013. PubMedCrossRef
Duraphe, A. T. (2009). Final report Mumbai terrorist attack cases 26th November 2008. Mumbai: Retrieved from www.hindu.com/nic/mumbai-terror-attack-final-form.pdf.
Elhai, J. D., Contractor, A. A., Palmieri, P. A., Forbes, D., & Richardson, J. D. (2011). Exploring the relationship between underlying dimensions of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in a national, trauma-exposed military sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 133, 477–480. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.04.035. PubMedCrossRef
Elhai, J. D., Grubaugh, A. L., Kashdan, T. B., & Frueh, B. C. (2008). Empirical examination of a proposed refinement to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder symptom criteria using the National Comorbidity Survey Replication data. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(4), 597–602. doi: 10.4088/JCP.v69n0411. PubMedCrossRef
Elhai, J. D., Layne, C. M., Steinberg, A. M., Brymer, M. J., Briggs, E. C., Ostrowski, S. A., et al. (2013). Psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD reaction index. part 2: investigating factor structure findings in a national clinic-referred youth sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 10–18. doi: 10.1002/jts.21755. PubMedCrossRef
Forbes, D., Lockwood, E., Elhai, J. D., Creamer, M., O’Donnell, M., Bryant, R., et al. (2011). An examination of the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder in relation to the anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 132, 165–172. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.02.011. PubMedCrossRef
Galea, S., & Maxwell, A. R. (2009). Methodological challenges in studying the mental health consequences of disasters. In Y. Neria, S. Galea, & F. H. Norris (Eds.), Mental health and disasters (pp. 579–593). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Garber, J., & Weersing, V. R. (2010). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in youth: implications for treatment and prevention. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17, 293–306. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2010.01221.x.
Giaconia, R. M., Reinherz, H. Z., Silverman, A. B., Pakiz, B., Frost, A. K., & Cohen, E. (1995). Traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder in a community population of older adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1369–1380. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199510000-00023. PubMedCrossRef
Gregorich, S. E. (2006). Do self-report instruments allow meaningful comparisons across diverse population groups? Testing measurement invariance using the confirmatory factor analysis framework. Medical Care, 44(Suppl. 3), S78–S94. doi: 10.1097/01.mlr.0000245454.12228.8f. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Kar, N., Mohapatra, P. K., Nayak, K. C., Pattanaik, P., Swain, S. P., & Kar, H. C. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents 1 year after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India: exploring cross-cultural validity and vulnerability factors. BMC Psychiatry, 7(8). doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-7-8.
Kilpatrick, D. G., Ruggiero, K. J., Acierno, R., Saunders, B. E., Resnick, H. S., & Best, C. L. (2003). Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: results from the national survey of adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 492–700. CrossRef
Kirmayer, L. J. (1996). Confusion of the sense: Implications of ethnocultural variations in somatoform and dissociative disorders for PTSD. In A. J. Marsella, M. J. Friedman, E. T. Gerrity, & R. M. Scurfiled (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder. Issues, research, and clinical applications (pp. 131–165). Washington: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Pathak, K. (2007). Terrorism: some mental health issues in Indian perspectives. Eastern Journal of Psychiatry, 10, 6–9.
Pearson Education Inc. (2012). Brief symptom inventory 18 (BSI®18) Retrieved June 1, 2012, from http://psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=PAg110.
Perrin, S., Smith, P., & Yule, W. (2000). Practitioner review: the assessment and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 3, 277–289. CrossRef
Petkus, A. J., Gum, A. M., Small, B., Malcarne, V. L., Stein, M. B., & Wetherell, J. L. (2010). Evaluation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the brief symptom inventory—18 with homebound older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25, 578–587. doi: 10.1002/gps.2377. PubMedCentralPubMed
Pole, N., Gone, J. P., & Kulkarni, M. (2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder among ethnoracial minorities in the United States. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 15, 35–61. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2008.00109.x.
Schwarz, E. D., & Perry, B. D. (1994). The post-traumatic response in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 17, 311–326. PubMed
The Associated Press. (2012). New Asian immigrants to US now surpass hispanics. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=155332915.
Ursano, R. J., Fullerton, C. S., & Benedek, D. M. (2009). What is psychopathology after disasters? Considerations about the nature of the psychological and behavioral consequences of disasters. In Y. Neria, S. Galea, & F. H. Norris (Eds.), Mental health and disasters (pp. 131–142). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Varma, D., Chandra, P. S., Thomas, T., & Carey, M. P. (2007). Intimate partner violence and sexual coercion among pregnant women in India: relationship with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 102, 227–235. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.09.026. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Wiesner, M., Chen, V., Windle, M., Elliott, M. N., Grunbaum, J. A., Kanouse, D. E., et al. (2010). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Brief Symptom Inventory–18 in women: a MACS approach to testing for invariance across racial/ethnic groups. Psychological Assessment, 22, 912–922. doi: 10.1037/a0020704. PubMedCrossRef
- Relations Between PTSD and Distress Dimensions in an Indian Child/Adolescent Sample Following the 2008 Mumbai Terrorist Attacks
Ateka A. Contractor
Mojisola F. Tiamiyu
Joseph D. Hovey
Andrew L. Geers
Marijo B. Tamburrino
Jon D. Elhai
- Springer US