Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 7/2006

01-10-2006 | Original Paper

Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with Autism Compared to Young People with Intellectual Disability

Auteurs: Avril V. Brereton, Bruce J. Tonge, Stewart L. Einfeld

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 7/2006

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a specific pattern of behavioural, communication and social problems. Additional mental health problems are often poorly understood and undetected. This study investigates the level and pattern of emotional and behavioural problems in young people with autism compared with children with intellectual disability (ID). Subjects were 381 young people with autism and a representative group of 581 Australian young people with ID aged 4–18 years. Parents/carers provided details of the emotional and behavioural problems of their child using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P). Young people with autism were found to suffer from significantly higher levels of psychopathology than young people with ID. The implications of this finding are discussed.
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders—text revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press. American Psychiatric Association. (2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders—text revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press.
go back to reference Birmaher, B., Quintana, H., & Greenville, L. L. (1988). Methylphenidate treatment of hyperactive autistic children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 248–251. CrossRef Birmaher, B., Quintana, H., & Greenville, L. L. (1988). Methylphenidate treatment of hyperactive autistic children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 248–251. CrossRef
go back to reference Bolton, P., Pickles, A., Murphy, M., & Rutter, M. (1998). Autism, effective and other psychiatric disorders: Patterns of familial aggregation. Psychological Medicine, 28, 385–395. PubMedCrossRef Bolton, P., Pickles, A., Murphy, M., & Rutter, M. (1998). Autism, effective and other psychiatric disorders: Patterns of familial aggregation. Psychological Medicine, 28, 385–395. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bradley, E., Summers, J., Wood, H., & Bryson, S. (2004). Comparing rates of psychiatric and behavior disorders in adolescents and young adults with severe intellectual disability with and without autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 151–161. PubMedCrossRef Bradley, E., Summers, J., Wood, H., & Bryson, S. (2004). Comparing rates of psychiatric and behavior disorders in adolescents and young adults with severe intellectual disability with and without autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 151–161. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brereton, A., Tonge, B., Mackinnon, A., & Einfeld, S. (2002). Screening young people for autism with the developmental behaviour checklist. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1368–1375. CrossRef Brereton, A., Tonge, B., Mackinnon, A., & Einfeld, S. (2002). Screening young people for autism with the developmental behaviour checklist. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1368–1375. CrossRef
go back to reference Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (1998). Epidemiology of Autism: Prevalence, Associated Characteristics, and Implications For Research And Service Delivery. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 4, 97–103. CrossRef Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (1998). Epidemiology of Autism: Prevalence, Associated Characteristics, and Implications For Research And Service Delivery. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 4, 97–103. CrossRef
go back to reference Cormack, K., Brown, A., & Hastings, R. (2000). Behavioural and emotional difficulties in students attending schools for children and adolescents with severe intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 44, 124–129. PubMedCrossRef Cormack, K., Brown, A., & Hastings, R. (2000). Behavioural and emotional difficulties in students attending schools for children and adolescents with severe intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 44, 124–129. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference DeMyer, M. K., Hington, J. N., & Jackson, R. K. (1981). Infantile autism reviewed: A decade of research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7, 388–451. PubMed DeMyer, M. K., Hington, J. N., & Jackson, R. K. (1981). Infantile autism reviewed: A decade of research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7, 388–451. PubMed
go back to reference Dekker, M., Nunn, R., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., & Koot, H. (2002). Assessing emotional and behavioural problems in children with intellectual disability: Revisiting the factor structure of the developmental behaviour checklist. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 601–610. PubMedCrossRef Dekker, M., Nunn, R., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., & Koot, H. (2002). Assessing emotional and behavioural problems in children with intellectual disability: Revisiting the factor structure of the developmental behaviour checklist. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 601–610. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, B. J. (1991). Psychometric and clinical assessment of psychopathology in developmentally disabled children. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 17, 147–154. Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, B. J. (1991). Psychometric and clinical assessment of psychopathology in developmentally disabled children. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 17, 147–154.
go back to reference Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, B. J. (1992). Manual for the developmental behaviour checklist. Clayton, Melbourne and Sydney: Monash University Centre for Developmental Psychiatry and School of Psychiatry, University of NSW. Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, B. J. (1992). Manual for the developmental behaviour checklist. Clayton, Melbourne and Sydney: Monash University Centre for Developmental Psychiatry and School of Psychiatry, University of NSW.
go back to reference Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, B. J. (1995). The developmental behaviour checklist: The development and validation of an instrument to assess behavioural and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 81–104. PubMedCrossRef Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, B. J. (1995). The developmental behaviour checklist: The development and validation of an instrument to assess behavioural and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 81–104. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, J. (1996a). Population prevalence of psychopathology in children and adolescents with intellectual disability: I. Rationale and methods. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 91–98. CrossRef Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, J. (1996a). Population prevalence of psychopathology in children and adolescents with intellectual disability: I. Rationale and methods. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 91–98. CrossRef
go back to reference Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, J. (1996b). Population prevalence of psychopathology in children and adolescents with intellectual disability: II. Epidemiological findings. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 99–109. CrossRef Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, J. (1996b). Population prevalence of psychopathology in children and adolescents with intellectual disability: II. Epidemiological findings. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 99–109. CrossRef
go back to reference Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, B. T. (2002). Manual for the developmental behaviour checklist (second edition)—primary carer version (DBC-P-P) and teacher version (DBC-P-T). Melbourne and Sydney: Monash University Centre for Developmental Psychiatry and Psychology and School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales. Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, B. T. (2002). Manual for the developmental behaviour checklist (second edition)—primary carer version (DBC-P-P) and teacher version (DBC-P-T). Melbourne and Sydney: Monash University Centre for Developmental Psychiatry and Psychology and School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales.
go back to reference Einfeld, S. L., Tonge, B. J., & Florio, T. (1997). Behavioural and emotional disturbance in individuals with Williams syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102, 45–53. PubMedCrossRef Einfeld, S. L., Tonge, B. J., & Florio, T. (1997). Behavioural and emotional disturbance in individuals with Williams syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102, 45–53. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Einfeld, S. L., Smith, A., Durvalula, S., Florio, T., & Tonge, B. J. (1999). Behavioural and emotional disturbance in Prader – Willi Syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 82, 123–127. PubMedCrossRef Einfeld, S. L., Smith, A., Durvalula, S., Florio, T., & Tonge, B. J. (1999). Behavioural and emotional disturbance in Prader – Willi Syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 82, 123–127. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., & Rees, V. (2001). Longitudinal course of behavioural and emotional problems in Williams syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 106, 73–81. PubMedCrossRef Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., & Rees, V. (2001). Longitudinal course of behavioural and emotional problems in Williams syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 106, 73–81. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fombonne, E. (1997). Autism: Recent research findings. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 10, 373–377. CrossRef Fombonne, E. (1997). Autism: Recent research findings. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 10, 373–377. CrossRef
go back to reference Frazier, J., Biederman, J., Bellordre, C., Garfield, S., Geller, D. Coffey, B., & Faraone, S. (2001). Should the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder be considered in children with pervasive developmental disorder? Journal of Attention Disorders, 4, 203–211. CrossRef Frazier, J., Biederman, J., Bellordre, C., Garfield, S., Geller, D. Coffey, B., & Faraone, S. (2001). Should the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder be considered in children with pervasive developmental disorder? Journal of Attention Disorders, 4, 203–211. CrossRef
go back to reference Frith, U. (Ed.), (1991). Autism and asperger syndrome. London: Cambridge University Press. Frith, U. (Ed.), (1991). Autism and asperger syndrome. London: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Gadow, K., DeVincent, C., Pomeroy, J., & Azizian, A. (2004). Psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with PDD and clinic and comparison samples. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 379–393. PubMedCrossRef Gadow, K., DeVincent, C., Pomeroy, J., & Azizian, A. (2004). Psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with PDD and clinic and comparison samples. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 379–393. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ghaziuddin, M., Ghaziuddin, N., & Greden, J. (2002). Depression in persons with autism: Implications for research and clinical care. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 299–306. PubMedCrossRef Ghaziuddin, M., Ghaziuddin, N., & Greden, J. (2002). Depression in persons with autism: Implications for research and clinical care. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 299–306. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ghaziuddin, M., Tsai, L., & Ghaziuddin, N. (1992). Clonidine for autism. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2, 239–240. CrossRef Ghaziuddin, M., Tsai, L., & Ghaziuddin, N. (1992). Clonidine for autism. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2, 239–240. CrossRef
go back to reference Gillberg, C. (1998). The longterm course of autistic disorders: Update on follow up studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 97, 99–108. PubMedCrossRef Gillberg, C. (1998). The longterm course of autistic disorders: Update on follow up studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 97, 99–108. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (1992). The biology of the autistic syndromes. London: Mackeith Press. Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (1992). The biology of the autistic syndromes. London: Mackeith Press.
go back to reference Gillberg, C., & Billstedt, E. (2000). Autism and Asperger syndrome: Coexistence with other clinical disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 321–330. PubMedCrossRef Gillberg, C., & Billstedt, E. (2000). Autism and Asperger syndrome: Coexistence with other clinical disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 321–330. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gillberg, C., & Steffenburg, S. (1987). Outcome and prognostic factors in infantile autism and similar conditions: A population-based study of 46 cases followed through puberty. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 273–287. PubMedCrossRef Gillberg, C., & Steffenburg, S. (1987). Outcome and prognostic factors in infantile autism and similar conditions: A population-based study of 46 cases followed through puberty. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 273–287. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gillot, A., Furniss, F., & Walter, A. (2001). Anxiety in high-functioning children with autism. Autism, 4, 117–132. Gillot, A., Furniss, F., & Walter, A. (2001). Anxiety in high-functioning children with autism. Autism, 4, 117–132.
go back to reference Goldstein, S., & Schwebach, A. (2004). The comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results of a retrospective chart review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 329–339. PubMedCrossRef Goldstein, S., & Schwebach, A. (2004). The comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results of a retrospective chart review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 329–339. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gullone, E., Cummins, R. A., & King, N.J. (1995) Self reported fears: A comparison study of youths with and without an intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 227–240. CrossRef Gullone, E., Cummins, R. A., & King, N.J. (1995) Self reported fears: A comparison study of youths with and without an intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 227–240. CrossRef
go back to reference Hastings, R., Brown, T., Mount, R., & Cormack, K. (2001). Exploration of psychometric properties of the developmental behaviour checklist. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 423–431. PubMedCrossRef Hastings, R., Brown, T., Mount, R., & Cormack, K. (2001). Exploration of psychometric properties of the developmental behaviour checklist. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 423–431. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hoare, P., Harris, M., Jackson, P., & Kerley, S. (1998). A community survey of children with severe intellectual disability and their families: Psychological adjustment, carer distress and the effect of respite care. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 42, 218–227. PubMedCrossRef Hoare, P., Harris, M., Jackson, P., & Kerley, S. (1998). A community survey of children with severe intellectual disability and their families: Psychological adjustment, carer distress and the effect of respite care. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 42, 218–227. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Howlin, P. (1998). Children with autism and asperger syndrome. A guide for practitioners and carers. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Howlin, P. (1998). Children with autism and asperger syndrome. A guide for practitioners and carers. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
go back to reference Kenway, E. The assessment of hyperactivity in children with mental retardation using a multi-purpose behaviour scale: A validity study. Unpublished Masters thesis, Macquarie University, Sydney, 1994. Kenway, E. The assessment of hyperactivity in children with mental retardation using a multi-purpose behaviour scale: A validity study. Unpublished Masters thesis, Macquarie University, Sydney, 1994.
go back to reference Kim, J., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S., Streiner, D., & Wilson, F. (2000). The prevalence of mood problems among children with autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4, 117–132. CrossRef Kim, J., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S., Streiner, D., & Wilson, F. (2000). The prevalence of mood problems among children with autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4, 117–132. CrossRef
go back to reference King, N. J., Ollendick, T. H., & Tonge, B. J. (1995). School refusal: Assessment and treatment. Boston, Allyn and Bacon. King, N. J., Ollendick, T. H., & Tonge, B. J. (1995). School refusal: Assessment and treatment. Boston, Allyn and Bacon.
go back to reference Koskentausta, T., & Almqvist, F. (2004). Developmental behaviour checklist (DBC-P) in the assessment of psychopathology in Finnish children with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 29, 27–39. CrossRef Koskentausta, T., & Almqvist, F. (2004). Developmental behaviour checklist (DBC-P) in the assessment of psychopathology in Finnish children with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 29, 27–39. CrossRef
go back to reference Krug, D. A., Arick, J., & Almond, P. (1980). Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 221–229. PubMedCrossRef Krug, D. A., Arick, J., & Almond, P. (1980). Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 221–229. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lainhart, J. E., & Folstein, S. E. (1994). Affective disorders in people with autism: A review of published cases. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 587–601. PubMedCrossRef Lainhart, J. E., & Folstein, S. E. (1994). Affective disorders in people with autism: A review of published cases. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 587–601. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Bristol, M. M., & Schopler, E. (1993). Early intervention for children with autism and related developmental disorders. In E. Schopler, M. E. Van Bourgondien, & M. M. Bristol (Eds.), Pre-school issues in autism. Current issues in autism. (Vol. 276, pp. 199–221). New York: Plenum Press. Lord, C., Bristol, M. M., & Schopler, E. (1993). Early intervention for children with autism and related developmental disorders. In E. Schopler, M. E. Van Bourgondien, & M. M. Bristol (Eds.), Pre-school issues in autism. Current issues in autism. (Vol. 276, pp. 199–221). New York: Plenum Press.
go back to reference Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Loveland, K. A., & Tunali-Kotoski, B. (1997). The school age child with autism. In D. J. Cohen, & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (2nd ed.) (pp. 283–308). New York: Wiley. Loveland, K. A., & Tunali-Kotoski, B. (1997). The school age child with autism. In D. J. Cohen, & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (2nd ed.) (pp. 283–308). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference McDougle, C. J., Kresch, L. E., Goodman, W. K., Naylor, S. T., Volkmar, F. R., Cohen, D. J., & Price, L. H. (1995). A case-controlled study of repetitive thoughts and behaviour in adults with autistic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 772–777. PubMed McDougle, C. J., Kresch, L. E., Goodman, W. K., Naylor, S. T., Volkmar, F. R., Cohen, D. J., & Price, L. H. (1995). A case-controlled study of repetitive thoughts and behaviour in adults with autistic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 772–777. PubMed
go back to reference Rutter. M. (1970). Autistic children: Infancy to adulthood. Seminars in Psychiatry, 2, 435–450. PubMed Rutter. M. (1970). Autistic children: Infancy to adulthood. Seminars in Psychiatry, 2, 435–450. PubMed
go back to reference Rutter M. (1978). Developmental issues and prognosis. In M. Rutter, & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 497–505). New York: Plenum Press. Rutter M. (1978). Developmental issues and prognosis. In M. Rutter, & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 497–505). New York: Plenum Press.
go back to reference Rutter, M., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. (2003). Using sex differences in psychopathology to study causal mechanisms: Unifying issues and research strategies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 1092–1115. PubMedCrossRef Rutter, M., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. (2003). Using sex differences in psychopathology to study causal mechanisms: Unifying issues and research strategies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 1092–1115. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schopler, E., & Mesibov, G. (Eds.), (1986). Social Behaviour in Autism. New York: Plenum Press. Schopler, E., & Mesibov, G. (Eds.), (1986). Social Behaviour in Autism. New York: Plenum Press.
go back to reference Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., Bashford, A., Lansing, M. D., & Marcus, L. M. (1990). Individualized Assessment and Treatment for Autistic and Developmentally Disabled Children: Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R). Austin, TX: Pro-ed. Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., Bashford, A., Lansing, M. D., & Marcus, L. M. (1990). Individualized Assessment and Treatment for Autistic and Developmentally Disabled Children: Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R). Austin, TX: Pro-ed.
go back to reference Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., DeVellis, R. F., & Daly, K. (1980). Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 10, 91–103. CrossRef Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., DeVellis, R. F., & Daly, K. (1980). Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 10, 91–103. CrossRef
go back to reference Smalley, S. L., McCracken, J., & Tanguay, P. (1995). Autism, affective disorders, and social phobia. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 60, 19–26. PubMedCrossRef Smalley, S. L., McCracken, J., & Tanguay, P. (1995). Autism, affective disorders, and social phobia. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 60, 19–26. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Steinhausen, H.-C., & Metzke, C. (2004). Differentiating the behavioural profile in autism and mental retardation and testing of a screener. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13, 214–220. PubMed Steinhausen, H.-C., & Metzke, C. (2004). Differentiating the behavioural profile in autism and mental retardation and testing of a screener. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13, 214–220. PubMed
go back to reference Sverd, J. (2003). Psychiatric disorders in individuals with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 9, 111–127. Sverd, J. (2003). Psychiatric disorders in individuals with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 9, 111–127.
go back to reference Tonge, B. J. (1999). Psychopathology of children with developmental disabilities. In N. Bouras (Ed.), Psychiatric and behavioural disorders in developmental disabilities and mental retardation (pp. 157–173). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tonge, B. J. (1999). Psychopathology of children with developmental disabilities. In N. Bouras (Ed.), Psychiatric and behavioural disorders in developmental disabilities and mental retardation (pp. 157–173). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Tonge, B. J., Dissanayake, C., & Brereton, A. V. (1994). Autism: Fifty years on from Kanner. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 30, 102–107. PubMedCrossRef Tonge, B. J., Dissanayake, C., & Brereton, A. V. (1994). Autism: Fifty years on from Kanner. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 30, 102–107. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tonge, B. J., Einfeld, S. L., Krupinski, J., Mackenzie, A., McLaughlin, M., Florio, T., & Nunn, R. J. (1996). The use of factor analysis for ascertaining patterns of psychopathology in children with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 198–207. PubMedCrossRef Tonge, B. J., Einfeld, S. L., Krupinski, J., Mackenzie, A., McLaughlin, M., Florio, T., & Nunn, R. J. (1996). The use of factor analysis for ascertaining patterns of psychopathology in children with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 198–207. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the wechsler intelligence scale—revised. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the wechsler intelligence scale—revised. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1989). Wechsler pre-school and primary scale of intelligence-revised. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1989). Wechsler pre-school and primary scale of intelligence-revised. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Wing, L. (1982). Language, social, and cognitive impairments in autism and severe mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 31–44. CrossRef Wing, L. (1982). Language, social, and cognitive impairments in autism and severe mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 31–44. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with Autism Compared to Young People with Intellectual Disability
Auteurs
Avril V. Brereton
Bruce J. Tonge
Stewart L. Einfeld
Publicatiedatum
01-10-2006
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 7/2006
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0125-y