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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 3/2019

21-03-2019

Psychopathic Traits in Middle Childhood: Evidence of a Hierarchical Three-Factor Structure

Auteurs: Hillary M. Gorin, David S. Kosson, Steven A. Miller, Nathalie M. G. Fontaine, Frank Vitaro, Jean R. Séguin, Michel Boivin, Sylvana Côté, Richard E. Tremblay

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 3/2019

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Abstract

Although the development of psychopathy is not well understood, prior studies suggest that psychopathic traits begin to develop in childhood. Whereas research suggests consistency in the structure and correlates of psychopathic traits as assessed with clinical measures of psychopathic traits in adolescence and in adulthood, there is less agreement about the nature of psychopathic traits earlier in childhood. This study was designed to enhance understanding of the nature of psychopathic traits in youth by: 1) examining the fit of one, two, three, and four factor models of psychopathic traits during middle childhood, and 2) examining the stability of the factor structure of psychopathic traits over time through invariance testing. The participants were youth in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) whose teachers provided ratings on 17 items associated with four validated dimensions of psychopathy at six (N = 605), seven (N = 747) and eight years of age (N = 686). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a hierarchical three-factor model of psychopathic traits, consisting of interpersonal, affective, and lifestyle/ antisocial components provided the best fit to the data at all three ages. Analyses also demonstrated strong invariance across these ages. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the internal structure for a syndrome of psychopathic traits in middle childhood is somewhat similar but slightly less differentiated than the factor structure identified during adolescence. Current findings also suggest that this internal structure is stable over a three-year period during middle childhood.
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Voetnoten
1
Although strong invariance is the gold standard, Widaman et al. (2011) suggest that partial strong invariance, in which some thresholds vary across age, is adequate.
 
2
For binary variables using weighted least squares estimation and the theta parameterization, Muthén and Muthén (1998-2017) recommend that the factor loadings, thresholds, and variances are freed across groups, that residual variances are fixed to one, factor means are fixed to zero, and factor loadings are fixed to one across groups. For the strong (scalar) model, they recommend constraining factor loadings and thresholds to be equal across groups, fixing residual variances to one and factor means to zero in one group, fixing the factor loading to one and freeing factor variances across groups.
 
3
For the configural model, Panayiotou (2017) recommended equating the loadings and thresholds of items across waves, setting the item residual variances to one and the factor intercepts to zero in Time 1 but allowing them to vary at subsequent time points, allowing factor disturbances and second-order factor loadings to be free, and setting second-order factor means to zero at all time points. In the metric (weak) model, the configural model constraints were applied and the second-order factor loadings equated (Panayiotou 2017; M. Panayiotou, personal communication, March 7, 2018). In the scalar (strong) model, the metric model constraints were applied with the second-order factor means set to zero at Time 1 and the first-order factor intercepts fixed at zero at all time-points (full scalar intercept invariance).
 
4
Muthén and Muthén (1998-2017), Muthén (2017b), and Grimm (K.J. Grimm, personal communication, January 18–19, 2018) suggested using weighted least squares estimation, theta parameterization, and constraining item variances of all items to 1.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Psychopathic Traits in Middle Childhood: Evidence of a Hierarchical Three-Factor Structure
Auteurs
Hillary M. Gorin
David S. Kosson
Steven A. Miller
Nathalie M. G. Fontaine
Frank Vitaro
Jean R. Séguin
Michel Boivin
Sylvana Côté
Richard E. Tremblay
Publicatiedatum
21-03-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 3/2019
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-019-09733-2

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