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Development and Initial Validation of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality Brief Other-Description Rating Form (SNAP-BORF)

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Yuliya Kotelnikova, Lee Anna Clark, Elizabeth P. Hayden
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10862-019-09729-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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The full-length Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality - 2nd Edition (SNAP-2, Clark et al. 2014) and various derivative versions were developed as measures of normal- and pathological-range personality traits. We report herein on the development and initial validation of the SNAP Brief Other-Description Rating Form (SNAP-BORF), an abbreviated version of the SNAP Other-Description Rating Form (ORF; Harlan and Clark Assessment, 6, 131–145, 1999). Our goal was to create a more efficient SNAP informant short form by making items more succinct rather than by eliminating items. SNAP-ORF word count was reduced by 68%, and the 1.5-page SNAP-BORF can be completed in approximately 10 min, one-third to one-half the time required to complete the SNAP-ORF. Mean-level differences between the SNAP-ORF and SNAP-BORF scales were negligible for all scales except propriety. Using exploratory factor analysis, we found the SNAP-BORF had a three-factor structure (NA vs. Low PA, Disinhibition vs. Constraint, and Antagonism) broadly consistent with extant literature. The SNAP-BORF showed good convergent/ discriminant validity with respect to the SNAP-family measures as well as measures of normal personality and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and worry. Results indicated that the SNAP-BORF is a useful measure when a very brief informant assessment of adaptive and maladaptive personality is needed.

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