Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1283-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cross-cultural studies focusing on individuation and parent-child relationships during late adolescence in the European context are sparse. This study investigated relationships between maternal and paternal responsiveness, demandingness and autonomy granting and late adolescents’ subjective well-being in Greece, Norway, Poland, and Switzerland. Additionally, the role of psychological, functional, and financial aspects of adolescents’ individuation in these relationships were assessed. Late adolescents (18–20-years-old, N = 745) reported on their parents’ behaviors and themselves. Structural models with latent constructs were applied to test the hypothesized relationships. Results showed that in all four countries, maternal and paternal autonomy granting and responsiveness were positively associated with adolescents’ well-being. No significant results were found for demandingness. Further, the study found that psychological and functional connectedness with mothers and financial connectedness with fathers partially explained the associations between parenting behaviors and adolescents’ well-being. The results indicate more similarities than differences across Europe in the associations between parenting on late adolescents’ outcomes. More importantly, the study points out that maternal and paternal parenting may play different roles in late adolescence.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Antonopoulou, K., Alexopoulos, D. A., & Maridaki-Kassotaki, K. (2012). Perceptions of father parenting style, empathy, and self-esteem among Greek preadolescents. Marriage and Family Review, 48(3), 292–309.
Alsaker, F. F., & Flammer, A. (2014). European Adolescents: basically, alike and excitingly different. In A. Flammer & F. D. Alsaker (Eds.), The Adolescent Experience: European and American Adolescents in the 1990s (pp. 167–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Arnett, J. J. (2007). Emerging adulthood: what is it, and what is it good for? Child Development Perspectives, 1(2), 68–73.
Barber, B. K., Maugham, S. L., & Olsen, J. A. (2005). Patterns of parenting across adolescence. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 108, 5–16.
Beauducel, A., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2006). On the performance of maximum likelihood versus means and variance adjusted weighted least squares estimation in CFA. Structural Equation Modeling, 13(2), 186–203.
Blos, P. (1979). The adolescence passage. New York, NY: International Universities Press.
Brand, S., Hatzinger, M., Beck, J., & Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2009). Perceived parenting styles, personality traits and sleep patterns in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 32(5), 1189–1207.
Branje, S. J. T., Laursen, B., & Collins, W. A. (2013). Parent-child communication during adolescence. In A. L. Vangelisti (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of Family Communication (pp. 271–286). New York, NY: Routledge.
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185–216.
Buhl, H. M. (2008). Development of a model describing individuated adult child-parent relationships. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32(5), 381–389.
Byrne, B., & Watkins, D. (2003). The issue of measurement invariance revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(2), 155–175.
Caprara, G. V., & Steca, P. (2006). The contribution of self-regulatory efficacy beliefs in managing affect and family relationships to positive thinking and hedonic balance. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25(6), 603–627.
Caprara, G. V., Steca, P., Gerbino, M., Pacielloi, M., & Vecchino, G. M. (2006). Looking for adolescents’ well-being: self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 15(1), 30–43.
Carlo, G., White, R. M. B., Streit, C., Knight, G. P., & Zeiders, K. H. (2018). Longitudinal relations among parenting styles, prosocial behaviors, and academic outcomes in U.S. Mexican adolescents. Child Development, 89(2), 577–592.
Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233–255.
Collins, W. A., & Steinberg, L. (2006). Adolescent development in interpersonal context. In W. Damon & N. Eisneberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 1003–1067). New York, NY: Wiley.
Copp, J. E., Giordano, P. C., Langmore, M. A., & Manning, W. D. (2017). Living with parents and emerging adults’ depressive symptoms. Journal of Family Issues, 38(16), 2017.
Darling, N., & Toyokawa, T. (1997). Construction and validation of The Parenting Style Inventory (PSI-II). http://www.oberlin.edu/faculty/ndarling/lab/psiii.pdf
Demo, D. H., Small, S. A., & Savin-Williams, R. C. (1987). Family relations and the self-esteem of adolescents and their parents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49(2), 705–715.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.
Dwairy, M., & Achoui, M. (2010). Adolescent-family connectedness: a first cross-cultural research on parenting and psychological adaptation of children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 8–15.
Eccles, J. S., Flangan, C., Lord, S., Midgley, C., Roeser, R., & Yee, D. (1996). Schools, families, and early adolescence: What are we doing wrong and what can we do instead? Development and Behavioral Pediatrics, 17(4), 267–276.
Enders, C. K. (2010). A primer on maximum likelihood algorithms available for use with missing data. Teacher’s corner. Structural Equation Modeling, 8(1), 128–141.
Eurostat (2015). Being young in Europe today report. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/6776245/KS-05-14-031-EN-N.pdf/18bee6f0-c181-457d-ba82-d77b314456b9
Fingerman, K. L., Cheng, Y.-P., Wesselmann, E. D., Zarit, S., Furstenberg, F., & Birditt, K. S. (2012). Helicopter parents and landing pad kids: Intense Parental support of grown children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 74(4), 880–896.
Flemming, W. M., & Anderson, S. A. (1986). Individuation from the family of origin and personal adjustment in adolescence. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 12(3), 311–315.
Fosco, G. M., Stromshak, E. A., Dishion, T. J., & Winter, C. (2012). Family relationships and parental monitoring during middle school as predictors of early adolescent psychological adjustment. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41(2), 202–213.
Fousiani, K., van Petegem, S., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Chen, B. (2014). Does parental autonomy support relate to adolescent autonomy? An in-depth examination of a seemingly simple question. Journal of Adolescent Research, 29(3), 299–330.
Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T., & Almeida, D. M. (2003). Parents do matter: trajectories of change in externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. Child Development, 74(2), 578–594.
Gavazzi, S. M., Sabatelli, R. M., & Reese-Weber, M. (1999). Measurement of financial, functional, and psychological connections in families: Conceptual development and empirical use of the Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scale. Psychological Reports, 84(3), 1361–1371.
Gecas, V., & Schwalbe, M. L. (1986). Parental behavior and adolescent self-esteem. Journal of Marriage and Family, 48(1), 37–46.
Georgas, J. (1991). Intrafamily acculturation of values in Greece. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 22(4), 445–457.
Givertz, M., & Segrin, C. (2014). The association between overinvolved parenting and young adults’ self-efficacy, psychological entitlement, and family communication. Communication Research, 41(8), 1111–1136.
Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children’s self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 143–154.
Grotevant, H. D. (1998). Adolescent development in family context. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 1097–1149). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Geuzaine, C., Debry, M., & Liesens, V. (2000). Separation from parents in late adolescence: the same for boys and girls? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(1), 79–91.
Hare, A. L., Szwedo, D. E., Schad, M. M., & Allen, J. P. (2014). Undermining adolescent autonomy with parents and peers: the enduring implications of psychologically controlling parents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 25(4), 739–752.
Hoffman, J. A. (1984). Psychological separation of late adolescents from their parents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(2), 170–178.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Cultures consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Doufman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership and organizations. The globe study of 62 societies. London: Sage.
Hoskins, D. H. (2014). Consequences of parenting on adolescent outcomes. Societies, 4(3), 506–531.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance StructureAnalysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.
Inguglia, C., Ingoglia, S., Liga, F., Lo Coco, A. L., & Lo Cricchio, M. G. (2015). Autonomy and relatdness in adolescncence and emerging adulthood: relationsips with parental support and psychological distress. Journal of Adult Development, 22(1), 1–13.
Kağitçibaşi, C. (2011). Socio-cultural change and integrative syntheses in human development: autonomous related self and socio-cognitive competence. Child Development Perspectives, 5(1), 1–7.
Kalsner, L., & Pistole, C. M. (2003). College adjustment, in multiethnic sample: attachment, separation-individuation, and ethnic identity. Journal of College Student Development, 44(1), 92–109.
Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A. E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P. D., Kendziora, K., & Garside, R. B. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: differences in sex, age and problem status. Social Development, 16(2), 326–342.
Kocayörük, E., Altintas, E., & İçbay, M. A. (2015). The perceived parental support, autonomous-self and well-being of adolescents: A cluster analysis approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6), 1819–1828.
Koepke, S., & Denissen, J. J. A. (2012). Dynamics of identity development and separation–individuation in parent–child relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood: A conceptual integration. Developmental Review, 32(1), 67–88.
Korelitz, K. E., & Garber, J. (2016). Congruence of parents’ and children’s perceptions of parenting: a meta-analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 45(10), 1973–1995.
Koumoundourou, G., Tsaousis, I., & Kounenou, K. (2011). Parental influence on Greek adolescent’s career decision-making difficulties: The mediating role of core self-evaluations. Journal of Career Assessment, 19(2), 165–182.
Kouros, C. D., Pruitt, M. M., Ekas, N. V., Kiraki, R., & Sunderland, M. (2017). Helicopter parenting, autonomy support, and college students’ mental health and well-being: the moderating role of sex and ethnicity. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(3), 939–949.
Lamb, M. E., & Lewis, C. (2013). Father-child relationships. In N. J. Cabrera & C. S. Tamis-LeMonda (Eds.), Handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 119–135). New York, NY and London: Routledge.
Leung, C. Y.-W., McBride-Chang, C., & Lai, B. P.-Y. (2004). Relations among maternal parenting style, academic competence, and life satisfaction in Chinese early adolescents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24(2), 113–143.
Li, Y., Costanzo, P. R., & Putallaz, M. (2010). Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 171(4), 330–362.
Liew, J., Kwok, O., Change, Y.-P., Chang, B. W., Chang, B. W., & Yeh, Y.-C. (2014). Parental autonomy support predicts academic achievement through emotion-related self-regulation and adaptive skills in Chinese American adolescents. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 5(3), 214–222.
Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shara, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: exploring the question, weighting the merits. Structural Equation Modelling, 9(2), 151–173.
Lopez, F. G., & Gover, M. R. (1993). Self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment and separation-individuation: A selective review. Journal of Counseling & Development, 71(5), 560–569.
Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1985). Socialization in the context of the family: parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen & E. M. Hetherington (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: V. 4, Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 1–101). NY: Wiley.
MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593–614.
Mastrotheodoros, S., Van der Graaff, J., Deković, M., Meeus, W.H., & Branje, S.J. (2018). Coming closer in adolescence: Convergence in mother, father, and adolescent reports of parenting. Journal of Research on Adolescence. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12417
Maxwell, S. E., & Cole, D. A. (2007). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation. Psychological Methods, 12(1), 23–44.
McGrath, E. P., & Repetti, R. L. (2000). Mothers’ and fathers’ attitudes toward their children’s academic performance and children’s perceptions of their academic competence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(6), 713–723.
Mendonça, M., & Fontaine, A. M. (2013). Late nest leaving in Portugal: its effects on individuation and parent-child relationships. Emerging Adulthood, 1(3), 232–244.
Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Netter, S., & Keehn, D. (2007). Maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescence: Associations with self-esteem, depression and life-satisfaction. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(1), 39–47.
Moore, W. (1987). Parent-adolescent separation: the construction of adulthood by late adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 23(2), 298–307.
Murray, K. W., Dwyer, K. M., Rubin, K. H., Knighton-Wisor, S., & Booth-LaForce, C. (2014). Parent child relationships, parental psychological control, and aggression: Maternal and paternal relationships. Journal of Adolescence, 43(8), 1361–1373.
Muthèn, L. K., & Muthèn, B. O. (1998). Mplus user’s guide. Statistical analysis with latent variables. Los Angeles, CA: Muthèn & Muthèn. 2016.
Nelson, M. K. (2010). Parenting out of control: Anxious parenting in uncertain times. New York, NY: University Press.
Ostafińska-Molik, B., & Wysocka, E. (2015). Parenting styles in the family of origin in the perception of adolescents with internalizing and externalizing disorders – analysis of dependencies. Polish Journal of Social Rehabilitation, 9(1), 267–288.
Pinquart, M. (2017). Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing problems of children and adolescents: An Updated Meta-Analysis. Developmental Psychology, 53(5), 873–932.
Plunkett, S. W., Henry, C. S., Robinson, L. C., Bhenke, A., & Falcon, P. C. (2007). Adolescent perception of parental behaviors, adolescent self-esteem, and adolescent depressed mood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(16), 760–772.
Ratelle, C. F., Simard, K., & Guay, F. (2012). University students’ well-being: the role of autonomy support from parents, friends, and the romantic partner. Journal of Happiness, 14(3), 893–910.
Rice, K. G., Cole, D. A., & Lapsley, D. K. (1990). Separation-individuation: family cohesion, adjustment to college. Measurement validation and test of theoretical model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37(2), 195–202.
Richman, S. B., & Mandara, J. (2013). Do socialization goals explain differences in parental control between black and white parents? Family Relations, 62(4), 625–636.
Rodrigues, C. M., Tucker, M. C., & Palmer, K. (2016). Emotion regulation in relation to emerging adults’ mental health and delinquency: A multi-informant approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(6), 1916–1925.
Rohner, R. P., & Khaleque, A. (2010). Testing central postulates of parental acceptance rejection theory (PARTheory): A meta-analysis of cross-cultural studies. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 2(1), 73–87.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self- image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rote, W. M., & Smetana, J. G. (2016). Patterns and predictors of mother-adolescent discrepancies across family constructs. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(10), 2064–2079.
Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., Grolnick, W. S., & La Guardia, J. G. (2006). The significance of autonomy and autonomy support in psychological development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology. Theory and methods. (pp. 795–849). New York, NY: Wiley.
Salmela-Aro, K., & Schoon, I. (2008). Youth development in Europe: transitions and identities. European Psychologist, 14(4), 372–375.
Sabatelli, R. M., & Anderson, S. A. (1991). Family system dynamics, peer relationships, and adolescents’ psychological adjustment. Family Relations, 40(4), 363–369.
Saraiva, L. M., & Matos, P. M. (2012). Separation-individuation of Portuguese emerging adults in relation to parents and to the romantic partner. Journal of Youth Studies, 15(4), 499–517.
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C. C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399–419). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Schaefer, E. S. (1965). A configuration analysis of children’s reports of parent behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(6), 552–557.
Schiffrin, H. H., Liss, M., Miles-McLean, H., Geary, K. A., Erchull, M. J., & Tashner, T. (2014). Helping or hovering? The effects of helicopter parenting on college students’ well-being. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(3), 548–557.
Schultheiss, E. P., & Blustein, D. L. (1994). Role of adolescent-parent relationships in college student development and adjustment. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 41(2), 248–255.
Schwarz, B., Mayer, B., Trommsdorff, G., Ben-Arieh, A., & Friedlmeier, M. (2012). Does the importance of parent and peer relationships for adolescents’ life satisfaction vary across cultures? Journal of Early Adolescence, 32(1), 55–80.
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445.
Silk, J. S., Morris, A. S., Kanaya, T., & Steinebrg, L. (2003). Psychological control and autonomy granting: opposite ends of a continuum or distinct constructs. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13(1), 113–128.
Smokowsky, P. R., Bacallao, M. L., Cotter, K. L., & Evans, C. B. R. (2015). The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of youth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46(3), 333–345.
Stewart, S. M., & Bond, M. H. (2002). A critical look at parenting research from mainstream: Problems uncovered while adapting Western research to non- Western cultures. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20(3), 379–392.
Stutz, M., & Schwarz, B. (2014). Effects of different facets of paternal and maternal control behaviour on the perceived academic competence of early adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11(2), 227–241.
Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004). The role of life satisfaction in the relationship between authoritative parenting dimensions and adolescent problem behavior. Social Indicators Research, 66, 165–195.
Super, C. M., & Harkness, S. (1986). The developmental niche: a conceptualization at the interface of child and culture. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 9(4), 545–569.
Sznitman, G. A., Petegem, S. V., & Zimmernann, G. (2018). Exposing the role of coparenting and parenting for adolescent personal identity process. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 1, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407518757707.
Tabak, I., & Zawadzka, D. (2016). The importance of positive parenting in predicting adolescent mental health. Journal of Family Studies, 23(1), 1–18.
Valend, J., Bru, E., & Idsøe, T. (2015). Perceived socio-economic status and social inclusion in school: parental monitoring and support as mediators. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 20(2), 173–188.
Walper, S., & Schwarz, B. (2001). Adolescents’ individuation in East and West Germany: effects of family structure, financial hardship, and family processes. American Behavioral Scientist, 44(11), 1937–1954.
World Value Survey (2015). Findings & Insights. http=//www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSContents.jsp
Watson, S. J., Barber, B. L., & Dziurawiec, S. (2016). Living situation and perceived parental financial support as protective factors against financial strain among Australian university students. Australian Journal of Psychology, 68(2), 130–138.
Wu, C.-W., Guo, N.-W., Hsieh, Y.-S., & Yeh, K.-H. (2015). The facilitative effect of need-supportive parenting on the change rate and adaptation of dual autonomy among Taiwanese adolescents. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 74(1), 181–195.
Yang, A., Wang, D., Li, T., Teng, F., & Ren, Z. (2008). The impact of adult attachment and parental rearing on subjective well-being in Chinese late adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality, 36(10), 1365–1378.
Youniss, J., & Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent relations with mothers, fathers, and friends. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zarrett, N., & Eccles, J. (2006).The passage to adulthood: challenges for late adolescence. New Directions for Youth Development, 111(7), 13–28.
Zimmer-Gembeck, M., & Collins, W. A. (2003). Autonomy development during adolescence. In G. R. Adams & M. D. Berzonsky (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of adolescence (pp. 175–204). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
Zupančič, M., Komidar, L., & Puklek-Levpušček, M. (2014). Individuation in Slovene emerging adults: its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction. Journal of Adolescence, 37(8), 1421–1433.
- Parenting and Late Adolescents’ Well-Being in Greece, Norway, Poland and Switzerland: Associations with Individuation from Parents
David L. Sam
- Springer US