Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 3/2016

16-02-2016

Measuring Outcome Expectancies for Specific Coping Behaviors: the Coping Expectancies Scale (CES)

Auteurs: Dara G. Friedman-Wheeler, Jo Ellyn Pederson, Hilda M. Rizzo-Busack, David A. F. Haaga

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 3/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Outcome expectancies for specific coping strategies may help explain why people vary in their choices of coping strategies (e.g., whether to smoke a cigarette or talk to a friend). These choices have relevance to both physical and mental health. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of a new measure of mood regulation expectancies for specific explicit coping strategies, the Coping Expectancies Scale (CES). 552 adults completed the CES and other measures online. Factor analysis of the CES using Maximum Likelihood Extraction with promax rotation revealed three factors: Expectancies for Passive/Avoidant Coping, Expectancies for Active Behavioral Coping, and Expectancies for Active Cognitive Coping. Concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity for these factors were strong, as was retest reliability. The CES enables researchers to measure expectancies for specific coping strategies, which may in turn help to explain people’s choices of strategies. In addition, the ability to measure these expectancies may allow for the development of treatment interventions that directly target them, ultimately enabling clients to adjust their expectancies and their choices of coping behavior, with implications for health and well-being.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
Six minute minimum used because median time to complete (for all 592 adults) was 13 min (25th%ile = 10, 75th%ile = 17), and it was deemed that those completing the study in six or fewer minutes were likely not reading the questions carefully; 60 min maximum chosen because it was deemed that individuals taking more than 1 h to complete the study were likely not completing it uninterrupted. Time to complete the study was not related to age or to version of the study completed.
 
2
None of the participants who completed time 2 was Hispanic/Latino, whereas 9 % of those invited to complete time 2 were Hispanic/Latino (X 2  = 8.2, p = .004). There were no differences between those who were invited and those who completed time 2, with respect to age or race, or any of the CES subscales at baseline.
 
3
Of course, an alternative way of capturing this variability would be to analyze each vignette separately. We chose an intermediate level of aggregation (aggregating across vignettes and into factor scores, but not into a total score), to provide specificity with respect to the constructs of interest (expectancies for types of coping) without making the scoring and interpretation of CES data excessively cumbersome.
 
4
We excluded participants from specific analyses (pairwise deletion) if they did not provide sufficient data on a relevant measure (i.e., if more than 10 % of a scale or subscale was missing).
 
5
In parallel analysis, random data sets are generated that are parallel to the actual data set, in that they contain the same number of observations and variables. If the eigenvalues for a given factor are greater from the random data than from the actual data, the factor is not retained.
 
6
Omega-hierarchical cannot be calculated for 2-item scales (expectancies for active cognitive coping, in the present study). In such cases, ω h is considered to be equal to alpha (W. Revelle, personal communication, June 30, Revelle 2010).
 
7
Spearman’s rho used because age was not normally distributed.
 
8
We also examined concurrent validity for a 10-item version of the CES (combining the items that loaded on the three retained factors). Concurrent validity correlations of the 10-item total score with the criterion variables were in every case between the correlation for the passive/avoidant factor and the two active coping factors, and in every case closer in absolute value to the correlation involving the passive/avoidant factor. Performing more like the passive-avoidant factor makes sense because that factor contributed more items (5) to the truncated CES than did the active behavioral (3) or active cognitive (2) factors. Nonetheless, we believe that the factor correlations are more illuminating than an aggregate version collapsing across them. To take one example, the 10-strategy CES showed a weak nonsignificant correlation (−.09) with the Coping Attitude Scale, but that result masks medium-sized, significant relations in opposing directions for passive-avoidant (r = −.30) vs. active-behavioral (.40) and active-cognitive (.23) factors. The 10-item version of the CES was also uncorrelated with social desirability (r = .04, p = .68). Full results available upon request.
 
9
In fact, distraction loaded by itself on a fourth factor, and exercise and spirituality loaded on a fifth factor, but these factors were not retained, per results of parallel analysis.
 
10
Indeed, projected use of passive/avoidant coping was higher for women (1.66) than for men (1.21), in the current study (t(83) = −2.28, p = .03).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Baer, R. A., & Huss, D. B. (2008). Mindfulness- and acceptance-based therapy. In J. L. Lebow (Ed.), Twenty-first century psychotherapies: Contemporary approaches to theory and practice (pp. 123–166). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Baer, R. A., & Huss, D. B. (2008). Mindfulness- and acceptance-based therapy. In J. L. Lebow (Ed.), Twenty-first century psychotherapies: Contemporary approaches to theory and practice (pp. 123–166). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
go back to reference Billings, A. G., & Moos, R. H. (1981). The role of coping responses and social resources in attenuating the stress of life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 139–157. CrossRefPubMed Billings, A. G., & Moos, R. H. (1981). The role of coping responses and social resources in attenuating the stress of life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 139–157. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cano, M. Á., Lam, C. Y., Chen, M., Adams, C. E., Correa-Fernández, V., Stewart, D. W., et al. (2014). Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 22(4), 332–340. doi: 10.​1037/​a0036749. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Cano, M. Á., Lam, C. Y., Chen, M., Adams, C. E., Correa-Fernández, V., Stewart, D. W., et al. (2014). Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 22(4), 332–340. doi: 10.​1037/​a0036749. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Costa Jr., P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Costa Jr., P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
go back to reference Cox, S. J., Mezulis, A. H., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). The influence of child gender role and maternal feedback to child stress on the emergence of the gender difference in depressive rumination in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 46(4), 842–852. doi: 10.​1037/​a0019813. CrossRefPubMed Cox, S. J., Mezulis, A. H., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). The influence of child gender role and maternal feedback to child stress on the emergence of the gender difference in depressive rumination in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 46(4), 842–852. doi: 10.​1037/​a0019813. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354. CrossRefPubMed Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dunn, T., Baguley, T., & Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: A practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105, 399–412. CrossRefPubMed Dunn, T., Baguley, T., & Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: A practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105, 399–412. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272–299. CrossRef Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272–299. CrossRef
go back to reference Field, A. P. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed., ). London: Sage. Field, A. P. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed., ). London: Sage.
go back to reference Franken, I., Hendriks, V., Haffmans, P., & van der Meer, C. (2003). Coping style of substance-abuse patients: effects of anxiety and mood disorders on coping change. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 1125–1132. doi: 10.​1002/​jclp.​10205. CrossRef Franken, I., Hendriks, V., Haffmans, P., & van der Meer, C. (2003). Coping style of substance-abuse patients: effects of anxiety and mood disorders on coping change. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 1125–1132. doi: 10.​1002/​jclp.​10205. CrossRef
go back to reference Friedman-Wheeler, D. G., Haaga, D. A. F., Gunthert, K. C., Ahrens, A. H., & McIntosh, E. (2008). Depression, neuroticism, and expectancies for engagement and disengagement coping among cigarette smokers. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 105–115. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Friedman-Wheeler, D. G., Haaga, D. A. F., Gunthert, K. C., Ahrens, A. H., & McIntosh, E. (2008). Depression, neuroticism, and expectancies for engagement and disengagement coping among cigarette smokers. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 105–115. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Goldberg, L. R. (1999). A broad-bandwidth, public domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. In I. Mervielde, I. Deary, F. De Fruyt, & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), Personality psychology in Europe (vol. 7, pp. 7–28). Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press. Goldberg, L. R. (1999). A broad-bandwidth, public domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. In I. Mervielde, I. Deary, F. De Fruyt, & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), Personality psychology in Europe (vol. 7, pp. 7–28). Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press.
go back to reference Juth, V., Dickerson, S. S., Zoccola, P. M., & Lam, S. (2015). Understanding the utility of emotional approach coping: evidence from a laboratory stressor and daily life. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 28(1), 50–70. doi: 10.​1080/​10615806.​2014.​921912. CrossRef Juth, V., Dickerson, S. S., Zoccola, P. M., & Lam, S. (2015). Understanding the utility of emotional approach coping: evidence from a laboratory stressor and daily life. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 28(1), 50–70. doi: 10.​1080/​10615806.​2014.​921912. CrossRef
go back to reference Kendler, K. S., Hettema, J. M., Butera, F., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 789–796. CrossRefPubMed Kendler, K. S., Hettema, J. M., Butera, F., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 789–796. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Levenson, H. (1981). Differentiating among internality, powerful others, and chance. In H. Lefcourt (Ed.), Research with the locus of control construct (vol. 1, pp. 15–63). New York: Academic Press. CrossRef Levenson, H. (1981). Differentiating among internality, powerful others, and chance. In H. Lefcourt (Ed.), Research with the locus of control construct (vol. 1, pp. 15–63). New York: Academic Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Mendelson, T., & Gruen, R. (2005). Self-criticism, failure, and depressive affect: A test of personality-event congruence and symptom specificity. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 301–314. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-005-1098-2. CrossRef Mendelson, T., & Gruen, R. (2005). Self-criticism, failure, and depressive affect: A test of personality-event congruence and symptom specificity. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 301–314. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-005-1098-2. CrossRef
go back to reference Meng, X., Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. (1992). Comparing correlated correlation coefficients. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 172–175. CrossRef Meng, X., Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. (1992). Comparing correlated correlation coefficients. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 172–175. CrossRef
go back to reference O’Connor, B. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 32(3), 396–402. CrossRef O’Connor, B. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 32(3), 396–402. CrossRef
go back to reference R Development Core Team (2010). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. R Development Core Team (2010). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
go back to reference Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES–D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES–D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef
go back to reference Reicherts, M., & Perrez, M. (1991). Stress and coping process questionnaire. In M. Perrez, & M. Reicherts (Eds.), Stress, coping, and health: A situation-behavior approach: Theory, methods, applications (pp. 207–225). Kirkland, WA: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. Reicherts, M., & Perrez, M. (1991). Stress and coping process questionnaire. In M. Perrez, & M. Reicherts (Eds.), Stress, coping, and health: A situation-behavior approach: Theory, methods, applications (pp. 207–225). Kirkland, WA: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
go back to reference Revelle, W. (2010). Psych: Procedures for Personality and Psychological Research (Version 1.0–90 Edition) [Computer Software Module]. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University. Revelle, W. (2010). Psych: Procedures for Personality and Psychological Research (Version 1.0–90 Edition) [Computer Software Module]. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University.
go back to reference Robins, C., Bagby, R., Rector, N., Lynch, T., & Kennedy, S. (1997). Sociotropy, autonomy, and patterns of symptoms in patients with major depression: A comparison of dimensional and categorical approaches. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21, 285–300. CrossRef Robins, C., Bagby, R., Rector, N., Lynch, T., & Kennedy, S. (1997). Sociotropy, autonomy, and patterns of symptoms in patients with major depression: A comparison of dimensional and categorical approaches. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21, 285–300. CrossRef
go back to reference Strahan, R., & Gerbasi, K. C. (1972). Short, homogenous versions of the marlowe-crowne social desirability scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 191–193. CrossRef Strahan, R., & Gerbasi, K. C. (1972). Short, homogenous versions of the marlowe-crowne social desirability scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 191–193. CrossRef
go back to reference Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed., ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed., ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
go back to reference Tice, D. M., & Bratslavsky, E. (2000). Giving in to feel good: the place of emotion regulation in the context of general self-control. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 149–159. CrossRef Tice, D. M., & Bratslavsky, E. (2000). Giving in to feel good: the place of emotion regulation in the context of general self-control. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 149–159. CrossRef
go back to reference Watson, D., David, J. P., & Suls, J. (1999). Personality, affectivity, & coping. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping: the psychology of what works (pp. 119–140). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Watson, D., David, J. P., & Suls, J. (1999). Personality, affectivity, & coping. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping: the psychology of what works (pp. 119–140). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Metagegevens
Titel
Measuring Outcome Expectancies for Specific Coping Behaviors: the Coping Expectancies Scale (CES)
Auteurs
Dara G. Friedman-Wheeler
Jo Ellyn Pederson
Hilda M. Rizzo-Busack
David A. F. Haaga
Publicatiedatum
16-02-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 3/2016
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-016-9539-9

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2016

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 3/2016 Naar de uitgave