Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The Internalizing (INT) and Externalizing (EXT) spectra are an emerging way to conceptualize the structure of psychopathology. Demonstrating relationships with emotional reactions to, and cognitive appraisals of, daily stressful events would be strong evidence of ecological validity. In the current study (N = 78), the experience sampling method (ESM, a structured diary technique with Palm Pilots) was used to capture affect and cognition related to current stressor, five times per day, for 1 week. Multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to examine affective and cognitive reactivity to daily stressors as a function of baseline levels of INT and EXT. INT scores were related to higher levels of negative affect (NA), lower levels of positive affect (PA) and more negative cognitive appraisals of the stressful situation. Several cross-level interactions were found between psychopathology scores, cognitive appraisals, and affect. Participants higher in INT psychopathology showed less decrease in NA as level of control increased, compared to participants low in INT. EXT moderated the association between NA and distress, with higher levels of EXT resulting in a stronger association between distress and NA. INT and EXT also moderated the relationships between the cognitive variables (distress and control, coping and control). Findings support both the utility and validity of the INT and EXT dimensions in understanding different forms of stress-related impairment in emotion and cognition.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Barrett, L. F., & Barrett, D. J. (2005). ESP, the experience sampling program.
Bolger, N., DeLongis, A., Kessler, R. C., & Schilling, E. A. (1989). Effects of daily stress on negative mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 111–129.
David, J. P., Green, P. J., Martin, R., & Suls, J. (1997). Differential roles of neuroticism, extraversion, and event desirability for mood in daily life: an integrative model of top-down and bottom-up influences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 73, 149–159. CrossRef
DeLongis, A., Coyne, J. C., Dakof, G., Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1982). Relationship of daily hassles, uplifts, and major life events to health status. Health Psychology, 1, 119–136. CrossRef
Eaton, N. R., Keyes, K. M., Krueger, R. F., Balsis, S., Skodol, A. E., Markon, K. E., Grant, B. F., & Hasin, D. S. (2012). An invariant dimensional liability model of gender differences in mental disorder prevalence: Evidence from a national sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(1), 282–288.
Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169–200. CrossRef
Ellsworth, P. C., & Scherer, K. R. (2003). Apprisal processes in emotion. In R. J. Davidson, H. Goldsmith, & K. R. Scherer (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 572–595). New York: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, E. I., Husky, M., Grondin, O., Mazure, C. M., Doron, J., & Swendsen, J. (2008). Mood trajectories following daily life events. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 251–259. CrossRef
Joorman, J., Yoon, K. L., & Siemer, M. (2010). Cognition and emotion regulation. In A. M. Kring & D. M. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.
Kendler, K. S., Aggen, S. H., Knudsen, G. P., Roysamb, E., Neale, M. C., & Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2011). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for syndromal and subsyndromal common DSM-IV Axis I and all Axis II disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 29–39. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Kramer, M. D., Krueger, R. F., & Hicks, B. M. (2008). The role of internalizing and externalizing liability factors in accounting for gender differences in the prevalence of common psychopathological syndromes. Psychological Medicine: A Journal of Research in Psychiatry and the Allied Sciences, 38, 51–61. doi: 10.1017/S0033291707001572.
Kring, A. M., & Bachorowski, J. A. (1999). Emotions and psychopathology. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 575–599. CrossRef
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Lejuez, C. W., Alkin, W., Daughters, S., Zvolensky, M., Kahler, C., & Gwadz, M. (2007). Reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Taks (BART-Y) in the assessment of risk-taking behavior among inner-city adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 106–111. PubMed
Marini, V. A., & Stickle, T. R. (2010). Evidence for deficits in reward responsivity in antisocial youth with callous-unemotional traits. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 1, 218–229.
Murphy, C. M., & O’Farrell, T. J. (1994). Factors associated with marital aggression in male alcoholics. Journal of Family Psychology, 8, 321–335. CrossRef
Neupert, S. D., Almeida, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (2007). Age differences in reactivity to daily stressors: the role of personal control. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 62B, P216–P225. CrossRef
Nezlek, J. B. (2007). Multilevel modeling in personality research. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 502–522). New York: Guilford.
Nezlek, J. B., & Gable, S. L. (2001). Depression as a moderator of relationships between positive daily events and day-to-day psychological adjustment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1692–1704. CrossRef
Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., & Congdon, R. (2004). HLM 6: Hierarchical linear & nonlinear modeling. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International.
Scollon, C. N., Kim-Prieto, C., & Diener, E. (2003). Experience sampling: promises & pitfalls, strengths & weaknesses. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 5–34. CrossRef
Settles, R. E., Fischer, S., Cyders, M. A., Combs, J. L., Gunn, R. L., & Smith, G. T. (2012). Negative urgency: a personality predictor of externalizing behavior characterized by neuroticism, low conscientiousness, and disagreeableness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 160–172. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Sylvers, P., Brennan, P. A., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Alden, S. A. (2010). Gender differences in autonomic indicators of antisocial personality disorder features. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 1, 87–96. CrossRef
Tellegen, A. (1985). Structures of mood and personality and their relevance to assessing anxiety, with an emphasis on self-report. In A. H. Tuma & J. D. Mason (Eds.), Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 681–706). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS- X: Manual for the positive and negative affect schedule - Expanded form. University of Iowa.
Watson, D., Wiese, D., Vaidya, J., & Tellegen, A. (1999). The two general activation systems of affect: structural findings, evolutionary considerations, and psychobiological evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 820–838. CrossRef
Watson, D., Gamez, W., & Simms, L. J. (2005). Basic dimensions of temperament and their relation to anxiety and depression: a symptom based perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 46–66. CrossRef
Werner, K., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A conceptual framework. In A. M. Kring & D. M. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.
- Measuring Momentary Stress, Affect, and Cognition: Relationships with the Internalizing and Externalizing Spectra
Susan C. South
Michelle L. Miller
- Springer US
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505