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31-10-2018 | Uitgave 1/2019 Open Access

Quality of Life Research 1/2019

Mapping the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores to EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D utility scores in patients with schizophrenia

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 1/2019
Edimansyah Abdin, Siow Ann Chong, Esmond Seow, Swapna Verma, Kelvin Bryan Tan, Mythily Subramaniam
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-018-2037-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



The current study aims to map the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) onto the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D-5L) and Short Form six-dimensional (SF-6D) utility scores for patients with schizophrenia.


A total of 239 participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorder were recruited from a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Ordinary least squares (OLS), censored least absolute deviations and Tobit regression methods were employed to estimate utility scores from the EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D. Model selection of the 18 regression models (three regression methods × six model specifications) was primarily determined by the smallest mean absolute error and mean square error, and the largest R2 and adjusted R2.


The mean age of the sample was 39.7 years (SD = 10.3). The mean EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D utility scores were 0.81 and 0.68, respectively. The EQ-5D-5L utility scores were best predicted by the OLS regression model consisting of three PANSS subscales, i.e. positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms, and covariates including age and gender. The SF-6D was best predicted by OLS regression model consisting of five PANSS subscales, i.e. positive, negative, excitement, depression and cognitive subscales.


The current study provides important evidence to clinicians and researchers on mapping algorithms for converting PANSS scores into utility scores that can be easily applicable for cost–utility analysis when EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D data are not available for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder in Singapore.

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