Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 8/2020

20-07-2019 | Original Article

Low numbers from a low head? Effects of observed head orientation on numerical cognition

Auteurs: Felix J. Götz, Anne Böckler, Andreas B. Eder

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 8/2020

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The present research shows effects of observed vertical head orientation of another person on numerical cognition in the observer. Participants saw portrait-like photographs of persons from a frontal view with gaze being directed at the camera and the head being tilted up or down (vs. not tilted). The photograph appeared immediately before each trial in different numerical cognition tasks. In Experiment 1, participants produced smaller numbers in a random number generation task after having viewed persons with a down-tilted head orientation relative to up-tilted and non-tilted head orientations. In Experiment 2, numerical estimates in an anchoring-like trivia question task were smaller following presentations of persons with a down-tilted head orientation relative to a non-tilted head orientation. In Experiment 3, a response key that was associated with larger numbers in a numerical magnitude task was pressed less frequently in a randomly intermixed free choice task when the photograph showed a person with a down-tilted relative to an up-tilted head orientation. These findings consistently show that social displays can influence numerical cognition across a variety of task settings.
Voetnoten
1
The preliminary test of the material is provided at: https://​doi.​org/​10.​17605/​OSF.​IO/​RTKDP.
 
2
As a manipulation check for the level of elaboration the mean response latencies for all participants were calculated and submitted to an independent-samples t test. Participants instructed to respond conscientiously (M = 17,949 ms ± SD = 7,696 ms) took significantly more time to come up with an estimate than participants instructed to respond spontaneously (M = 13,996 ms ± SD = 4,638 ms), t(81) = − 2.789, p = .007, ds = 0.62. Thus, the instructions significantly affected response latencies.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Baddeley, A. D. (1966). The capacity for generating information by randomization. The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology, 18(2), 119–129. PubMed Baddeley, A. D. (1966). The capacity for generating information by randomization. The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology, 18(2), 119–129. PubMed
go back to reference Bahnik, S., & Strack, F. (2016). Overlap of accessible information undermines the anchoring effect. Judgment and Decision Making, 11(1), 92–98. Bahnik, S., & Strack, F. (2016). Overlap of accessible information undermines the anchoring effect. Judgment and Decision Making, 11(1), 92–98.
go back to reference Banks, W. P., & Hill, D. K. (1974). The apparent magnitude of number scaled by random production. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102(2), 353. Banks, W. P., & Hill, D. K. (1974). The apparent magnitude of number scaled by random production. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102(2), 353.
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (1992). How to build a baby that can read minds: Cognitive mechanisms in mindreading. In S. Baron-Cohend (Ed.), The maladapted mind: Classic readings in evolutionary psychopathology (pp. 207–239). East Sussex: Psychology Press. Baron-Cohen, S. (1992). How to build a baby that can read minds: Cognitive mechanisms in mindreading. In S. Baron-Cohend (Ed.), The maladapted mind: Classic readings in evolutionary psychopathology (pp. 207–239). East Sussex: Psychology Press.
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
go back to reference Böckler, A., Knoblich, G., & Sebanz, N. (2011). Observing shared attention modulates gaze following. Cognition, 120(2), 292–298. PubMed Böckler, A., Knoblich, G., & Sebanz, N. (2011). Observing shared attention modulates gaze following. Cognition, 120(2), 292–298. PubMed
go back to reference Brozzoli, C., Ishihara, M., Göbel, S. M., Salemme, R., Rossetti, Y., & Farnè, A. (2008). Touch perception reveals the dominance of spatial over digital representation of numbers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(14), 5644–5648. Brozzoli, C., Ishihara, M., Göbel, S. M., Salemme, R., Rossetti, Y., & Farnè, A. (2008). Touch perception reveals the dominance of spatial over digital representation of numbers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(14), 5644–5648.
go back to reference Bueti, D., & Walsh, V. (2009). The parietal cortex and the representation of time, space, number and other magnitudes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1525), 1831–1840. Bueti, D., & Walsh, V. (2009). The parietal cortex and the representation of time, space, number and other magnitudes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1525), 1831–1840.
go back to reference Csibra, G., & Gergely, G. (2009). Natural pedagogy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(4), 148–153. PubMed Csibra, G., & Gergely, G. (2009). Natural pedagogy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(4), 148–153. PubMed
go back to reference De Houwer, J., Beckers, T., Vandorpe, S., & Custers, R. (2005). Further evidence for the role of mode-independent short-term associations in spatial Simon effects. Perception and Psychophysics, 67(4), 659–666. PubMed De Houwer, J., Beckers, T., Vandorpe, S., & Custers, R. (2005). Further evidence for the role of mode-independent short-term associations in spatial Simon effects. Perception and Psychophysics, 67(4), 659–666. PubMed
go back to reference Dehaene, S., Bossini, S., & Giraux, P. (1993). The mental representation of parity and number magnitude. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122(3), 371–396. Dehaene, S., Bossini, S., & Giraux, P. (1993). The mental representation of parity and number magnitude. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122(3), 371–396.
go back to reference Dehaene, S., & Changeux, J. P. (1993). Development of elementary numerical abilities: A neuronal model. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 5(4), 390–407. PubMed Dehaene, S., & Changeux, J. P. (1993). Development of elementary numerical abilities: A neuronal model. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 5(4), 390–407. PubMed
go back to reference Driver, J., Davis, G., Ricciardelli, P., Kidd, P., Maxwell, E., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). Gaze perception triggers reflexive visuospatial orienting. Visual Cognition, 6(5), 509–540. Driver, J., Davis, G., Ricciardelli, P., Kidd, P., Maxwell, E., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). Gaze perception triggers reflexive visuospatial orienting. Visual Cognition, 6(5), 509–540.
go back to reference Eerland, A., Guadalupe, T. M., & Zwaan, R. A. (2011). Leaning to the left makes the Eiffel Tower seem smaller: Posture-modulated estimation. Psychological Science, 22(12), 1511–1514. PubMed Eerland, A., Guadalupe, T. M., & Zwaan, R. A. (2011). Leaning to the left makes the Eiffel Tower seem smaller: Posture-modulated estimation. Psychological Science, 22(12), 1511–1514. PubMed
go back to reference Erle, T. M., & Topolinski, S. (2017). The grounded nature of psychological perspective-taking. Journal of personality and social psychology, 112(5), 683. PubMed Erle, T. M., & Topolinski, S. (2017). The grounded nature of psychological perspective-taking. Journal of personality and social psychology, 112(5), 683. PubMed
go back to reference Evans, F. J. (1978). Monitoring attention deployment by random number generation: An index to measure subjective randomness. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 12(1), 35–38. Evans, F. J. (1978). Monitoring attention deployment by random number generation: An index to measure subjective randomness. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 12(1), 35–38.
go back to reference Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. PubMed Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. PubMed
go back to reference Fias, W., & Fischer, M. H. (2005). Spatial representation of number. In J. Campbell (Ed.), Handbook of mathematical cognition (pp. 43–54). London: Psychology Press. Fias, W., & Fischer, M. H. (2005). Spatial representation of number. In J. Campbell (Ed.), Handbook of mathematical cognition (pp. 43–54). London: Psychology Press.
go back to reference Fischer, M. H. (2012). A hierarchical view of grounded, embodied, and situated numerical cognition. Cognitive processing, 13(1), 161–164. Fischer, M. H. (2012). A hierarchical view of grounded, embodied, and situated numerical cognition. Cognitive processing, 13(1), 161–164.
go back to reference Fischer, M. H., Castel, A. D., Dodd, M. D., & Pratt, J. (2003). Perceiving numbers causes spatial shifts of attention. Nature Neuroscience, 6(6), 555–556. PubMed Fischer, M. H., Castel, A. D., Dodd, M. D., & Pratt, J. (2003). Perceiving numbers causes spatial shifts of attention. Nature Neuroscience, 6(6), 555–556. PubMed
go back to reference Fischer, M. H., & Shaki, S. (2016). Measuring spatial–numerical associations: Evidence for a purely conceptual link. Psychological Research, 80(1), 109–112. PubMed Fischer, M. H., & Shaki, S. (2016). Measuring spatial–numerical associations: Evidence for a purely conceptual link. Psychological Research, 80(1), 109–112. PubMed
go back to reference Friesen, C. K., Moore, C., & Kingstone, A. (2005). Does gaze direction really trigger a reflexive shift of spatial attention? Brain and Cognition, 57, 66–69. PubMed Friesen, C. K., Moore, C., & Kingstone, A. (2005). Does gaze direction really trigger a reflexive shift of spatial attention? Brain and Cognition, 57, 66–69. PubMed
go back to reference Frischen, A., Bayliss, A. P., & Tipper, S. P. (2007). Gaze cueing of attention: Visual attention, social cognition, and individual differences. Psychological Bulletin, 133(4), 694–724. PubMedPubMedCentral Frischen, A., Bayliss, A. P., & Tipper, S. P. (2007). Gaze cueing of attention: Visual attention, social cognition, and individual differences. Psychological Bulletin, 133(4), 694–724. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Furnham, A., & Boo, H. C. (2011). A literature review of the anchoring effect. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 40(1), 35–42. Furnham, A., & Boo, H. C. (2011). A literature review of the anchoring effect. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 40(1), 35–42.
go back to reference Gozli, D. G. (2017). Behaviour versus performance: The veiled commitment of experimental psychology. Theory & Psychology, 27(6), 741–758. Gozli, D. G. (2017). Behaviour versus performance: The veiled commitment of experimental psychology. Theory & Psychology, 27(6), 741–758.
go back to reference Grade, S., Badets, A., & Pesenti, M. (2017). Influence of finger and mouth action observation on random number generation: An instance of embodied cognition for abstract concepts. Psychological Research, 81(3), 538–548. PubMed Grade, S., Badets, A., & Pesenti, M. (2017). Influence of finger and mouth action observation on random number generation: An instance of embodied cognition for abstract concepts. Psychological Research, 81(3), 538–548. PubMed
go back to reference Grade, S., Lefèvre, N., & Pesenti, M. (2013). Influence of gaze observation on random number generation. Experimental Psychology, 60(2), 122–130. PubMed Grade, S., Lefèvre, N., & Pesenti, M. (2013). Influence of gaze observation on random number generation. Experimental Psychology, 60(2), 122–130. PubMed
go back to reference Hartmann, M., Gashaj, V., Stahnke, A., & Mast, F. (2014). There is more than” more is up”: Hand and foot responses reverse the vertical association of number magnitudes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(4), 1401–1414. PubMed Hartmann, M., Gashaj, V., Stahnke, A., & Mast, F. (2014). There is more than” more is up”: Hand and foot responses reverse the vertical association of number magnitudes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(4), 1401–1414. PubMed
go back to reference Hartmann, M., Grabherr, L., & Mast, F. (2012). Moving along the mental number line: Interactions between whole-body motion and numerical cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(6), 1416–1427. PubMed Hartmann, M., Grabherr, L., & Mast, F. (2012). Moving along the mental number line: Interactions between whole-body motion and numerical cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(6), 1416–1427. PubMed
go back to reference Hietanen, J. K. (1999). Does your gaze direction and head orientation shift my visual attention? NeuroReport, 10(16), 3443–3447. PubMed Hietanen, J. K. (1999). Does your gaze direction and head orientation shift my visual attention? NeuroReport, 10(16), 3443–3447. PubMed
go back to reference Hietanen, J. K. (2002). Social attention orienting integrates visual information from head and body orientation. Psychological Research, 66(3), 174–179. PubMed Hietanen, J. K. (2002). Social attention orienting integrates visual information from head and body orientation. Psychological Research, 66(3), 174–179. PubMed
go back to reference Holmes, K. J., & Lourenco, S. F. (2011). Common spatial organization of number and emotional expression: A mental magnitude line. Brain and Cognition, 77(2), 315–323. PubMed Holmes, K. J., & Lourenco, S. F. (2011). Common spatial organization of number and emotional expression: A mental magnitude line. Brain and Cognition, 77(2), 315–323. PubMed
go back to reference Holmes, K. J., & Lourenco, S. F. (2012). Orienting numbers in mental space: Horizontal organization trumps vertical. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65(6), 1044–1051. PubMed Holmes, K. J., & Lourenco, S. F. (2012). Orienting numbers in mental space: Horizontal organization trumps vertical. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65(6), 1044–1051. PubMed
go back to reference Hommel, B., Müsseler, J., Aschersleben, G., & Prinz, W. (2001). The theory of event coding (TEC): A framework for perception and action planning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24(5), 849–878. PubMed Hommel, B., Müsseler, J., Aschersleben, G., & Prinz, W. (2001). The theory of event coding (TEC): A framework for perception and action planning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24(5), 849–878. PubMed
go back to reference Hubbard, E. M., Piazza, M., Pinel, P., & Dehaene, S. (2005). Interactions between number and space in parietal cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 435–448. PubMed Hubbard, E. M., Piazza, M., Pinel, P., & Dehaene, S. (2005). Interactions between number and space in parietal cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 435–448. PubMed
go back to reference Ito, Y., & Hatta, T. (2004). Spatial structure of quantitative representation of numbers: Evidence from the SNARC effect. Memory & Cognition, 32(4), 662–673. Ito, Y., & Hatta, T. (2004). Spatial structure of quantitative representation of numbers: Evidence from the SNARC effect. Memory & Cognition, 32(4), 662–673.
go back to reference Knops, A., Thirion, B., Hubbard, E. M., Michel, V., & Dehaene, S. (2009). Recruitment of an area involved in eye movements during mental arithmetic. Science, 324(5934), 1583–1585. PubMed Knops, A., Thirion, B., Hubbard, E. M., Michel, V., & Dehaene, S. (2009). Recruitment of an area involved in eye movements during mental arithmetic. Science, 324(5934), 1583–1585. PubMed
go back to reference Langner, O., Dotsch, R., Bijlstra, G., Wigboldus, D. H., Hawk, S. T., & Van Knippenberg, A. (2010). Presentation and validation of the Radboud Faces database. Cognition and Emotion, 24(8), 1377–1388. Langner, O., Dotsch, R., Bijlstra, G., Wigboldus, D. H., Hawk, S. T., & Van Knippenberg, A. (2010). Presentation and validation of the Radboud Faces database. Cognition and Emotion, 24(8), 1377–1388.
go back to reference Langton, S. R. (2000). The mutual influence of gaze and head orientation in the analysis of social attention direction. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 53(3), 825–845. Langton, S. R. (2000). The mutual influence of gaze and head orientation in the analysis of social attention direction. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 53(3), 825–845.
go back to reference Langton, S. R., & Bruce, V. (1999). Reflexive visual orienting in response to the social attention of others. Visual Cognition, 6(5), 541–567. Langton, S. R., & Bruce, V. (1999). Reflexive visual orienting in response to the social attention of others. Visual Cognition, 6(5), 541–567.
go back to reference Langton, S. R., & Bruce, V. (2000). You must see the point: Automatic processing of cues to the direction of social attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26(2), 747–757. PubMed Langton, S. R., & Bruce, V. (2000). You must see the point: Automatic processing of cues to the direction of social attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26(2), 747–757. PubMed
go back to reference Langton, S. R., Watt, R. J., & Bruce, V. (2000). Do the eyes have it? Cues to the direction of social attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(2), 50–59. PubMed Langton, S. R., Watt, R. J., & Bruce, V. (2000). Do the eyes have it? Cues to the direction of social attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(2), 50–59. PubMed
go back to reference Loetscher, T., Bockisch, C., & Brugger, P. (2008a). Looking for the answer: The mind’s eye in number space. Neuroscience, 151(3), 725–729. PubMed Loetscher, T., Bockisch, C., & Brugger, P. (2008a). Looking for the answer: The mind’s eye in number space. Neuroscience, 151(3), 725–729. PubMed
go back to reference Loetscher, T., Bockisch, C. J., Nicholls, M. E., & Brugger, P. (2010). Eye position predicts what number you have in mind. Current Biology, 20(6), R264–R265. PubMed Loetscher, T., Bockisch, C. J., Nicholls, M. E., & Brugger, P. (2010). Eye position predicts what number you have in mind. Current Biology, 20(6), R264–R265. PubMed
go back to reference Loetscher, T., & Brugger, P. (2007). Exploring number space by random digit generation. Experimental Brain Research, 180(4), 655–665. PubMed Loetscher, T., & Brugger, P. (2007). Exploring number space by random digit generation. Experimental Brain Research, 180(4), 655–665. PubMed
go back to reference Loetscher, T., Schwarz, U., Schubiger, M., & Brugger, P. (2008b). Head turns bias the brain’s internal random generator. Current Biology, 18(2), R60–R62. PubMed Loetscher, T., Schwarz, U., Schubiger, M., & Brugger, P. (2008b). Head turns bias the brain’s internal random generator. Current Biology, 18(2), R60–R62. PubMed
go back to reference Loudwin, J., & Bannert, M. (2017). Facing pitch: Constructing associations between space and pitch leads to better estimation of musical intervals. Musicae Scientiae, 21(1), 26–40. Loudwin, J., & Bannert, M. (2017). Facing pitch: Constructing associations between space and pitch leads to better estimation of musical intervals. Musicae Scientiae, 21(1), 26–40.
go back to reference Moyer, R. S., & Landauer, T. K. (1967). Time required for judgements of numerical inequality. Nature, 215(5109), 1519–1520. PubMed Moyer, R. S., & Landauer, T. K. (1967). Time required for judgements of numerical inequality. Nature, 215(5109), 1519–1520. PubMed
go back to reference Myachykov, A., Scheepers, C., Fischer, M. H., & Kessler, K. (2014). TEST: A tropic, embodied, and situated theory of cognition. Topics in Cognitive Science, 6(3), 442–460. PubMed Myachykov, A., Scheepers, C., Fischer, M. H., & Kessler, K. (2014). TEST: A tropic, embodied, and situated theory of cognition. Topics in Cognitive Science, 6(3), 442–460. PubMed
go back to reference Pecher, D., & Boot, I. (2011). Numbers in space: Differences between concrete and abstract situations. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 121. PubMedPubMedCentral Pecher, D., & Boot, I. (2011). Numbers in space: Differences between concrete and abstract situations. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 121. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Perrett, D. I., & Emery, N. J. (1994). Understanding the intentions of others from visual signals: Neurophysiological evidence. Current Psychology of Cognition, 13(5), 683–694. Perrett, D. I., & Emery, N. J. (1994). Understanding the intentions of others from visual signals: Neurophysiological evidence. Current Psychology of Cognition, 13(5), 683–694.
go back to reference Perrett, D. I., Hietanen, J. K., Oram, M. W., & Benson, P. J. (1992). Organization and functions of cells responsive to faces in the temporal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 335(1273), 23–30. PubMed Perrett, D. I., Hietanen, J. K., Oram, M. W., & Benson, P. J. (1992). Organization and functions of cells responsive to faces in the temporal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 335(1273), 23–30. PubMed
go back to reference Pomianowska, I., Germeys, F., Verfaillie, K., & Newell, F. N. (2012). The role of social cues in the deployment of spatial attention: Head-body relationships automatically activate directional spatial codes in a Simon task. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6, 4. PubMedPubMedCentral Pomianowska, I., Germeys, F., Verfaillie, K., & Newell, F. N. (2012). The role of social cues in the deployment of spatial attention: Head-body relationships automatically activate directional spatial codes in a Simon task. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6, 4. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Proctor, R. W., & Cho, Y. S. (2006). Polarity correspondence: A general principle for performance of speeded binary classification tasks. Psychological Bulletin, 132(3), 416–442. PubMed Proctor, R. W., & Cho, Y. S. (2006). Polarity correspondence: A general principle for performance of speeded binary classification tasks. Psychological Bulletin, 132(3), 416–442. PubMed
go back to reference Restle, F. (1970). Speed of adding and comparing numbers. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83(2), 274–278. Restle, F. (1970). Speed of adding and comparing numbers. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83(2), 274–278.
go back to reference Roettger, T. B., & Domahs, F. (2015). Grammatical number elicits SNARC and MARC effects as a function of task demands. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(6), 1231–1248. PubMed Roettger, T. B., & Domahs, F. (2015). Grammatical number elicits SNARC and MARC effects as a function of task demands. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(6), 1231–1248. PubMed
go back to reference Schwarz, W., & Keus, I. M. (2004). Moving the eyes along the mental number line: Comparing SNARC effects with saccadic and manual responses. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 66(4), 651–664. Schwarz, W., & Keus, I. M. (2004). Moving the eyes along the mental number line: Comparing SNARC effects with saccadic and manual responses. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 66(4), 651–664.
go back to reference Senju, A., & Johnson, M. H. (2009). The eye contact effect: Mechanisms and development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(3), 127–134. PubMed Senju, A., & Johnson, M. H. (2009). The eye contact effect: Mechanisms and development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(3), 127–134. PubMed
go back to reference Shaki, S., & Fischer, M. H. (2014). Random walks on the mental number line. Experimental Brain Research, 232(1), 43–49. PubMed Shaki, S., & Fischer, M. H. (2014). Random walks on the mental number line. Experimental Brain Research, 232(1), 43–49. PubMed
go back to reference Shaki, S., & Fischer, M. H. (2018). Deconstructing spatial-numerical associations. Cognition, 175, 109–113. PubMed Shaki, S., & Fischer, M. H. (2018). Deconstructing spatial-numerical associations. Cognition, 175, 109–113. PubMed
go back to reference Simmons, J. P., LeBoeuf, R. A., & Nelson, L. D. (2010). The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: Do people adjust from provided anchors? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(6), 917–932. PubMed Simmons, J. P., LeBoeuf, R. A., & Nelson, L. D. (2010). The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: Do people adjust from provided anchors? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(6), 917–932. PubMed
go back to reference Sixtus, E., Fischer, M. H., & Lindemann, O. (2017). Finger posing primes number comprehension. Cognitive Processing, 18(3), 237–248. PubMed Sixtus, E., Fischer, M. H., & Lindemann, O. (2017). Finger posing primes number comprehension. Cognitive Processing, 18(3), 237–248. PubMed
go back to reference Sixtus, E., Lonnemann, J., Fischer, M. H., & Werner, K. (2019). Mental number representations in 2D space. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 172. PubMedPubMedCentral Sixtus, E., Lonnemann, J., Fischer, M. H., & Werner, K. (2019). Mental number representations in 2D space. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 172. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Sperber, D., & Wilson, D. (1986). Relevance: Communication and cognition. Oxford: Blackwell. Sperber, D., & Wilson, D. (1986). Relevance: Communication and cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.
go back to reference Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(3), 220–247. PubMed Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(3), 220–247. PubMed
go back to reference Strack, F., & Mussweiler, T. (1997). Explaining the enigmatic anchoring effect: Mechanisms of selective accessibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(3), 437. Strack, F., & Mussweiler, T. (1997). Explaining the enigmatic anchoring effect: Mechanisms of selective accessibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(3), 437.
go back to reference Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185(4157), 1124–1131. PubMed Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185(4157), 1124–1131. PubMed
go back to reference van der Wel, R. P., Welsh, T., & Böckler, A. (2018). Talking heads or talking eyes? Effects of head orientation and sudden onset gaze cues on attention capture. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80(1), 1–6. van der Wel, R. P., Welsh, T., & Böckler, A. (2018). Talking heads or talking eyes? Effects of head orientation and sudden onset gaze cues on attention capture. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80(1), 1–6.
go back to reference Van Dijck, J.-P., Abrahamse, E. L., Acar, F., Ketels, B., & Fias, W. (2014). A working memory account of the interaction between numbers and spatial attention. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(8), 1500–1513. PubMed Van Dijck, J.-P., Abrahamse, E. L., Acar, F., Ketels, B., & Fias, W. (2014). A working memory account of the interaction between numbers and spatial attention. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(8), 1500–1513. PubMed
go back to reference Walsh, V. (2003). A theory of magnitude: common cortical metrics of time, space and quantity. Trends in cognitive sciences, 7(11), 483–488. PubMed Walsh, V. (2003). A theory of magnitude: common cortical metrics of time, space and quantity. Trends in cognitive sciences, 7(11), 483–488. PubMed
go back to reference Wiemers, M., Bekkering, H., & Lindemann, O. (2017). Is more always up? Evidence for a preference of hand-based associations over vertical number mappings. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 29(5), 642–652. Wiemers, M., Bekkering, H., & Lindemann, O. (2017). Is more always up? Evidence for a preference of hand-based associations over vertical number mappings. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 29(5), 642–652.
go back to reference Winter, B., & Matlock, T. (2013). More is up… and right: Random number generation along two axes. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th annual conference of the cognitive science society (pp. 3789–3974). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. Winter, B., & Matlock, T. (2013). More is up… and right: Random number generation along two axes. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th annual conference of the cognitive science society (pp. 3789–3974). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
go back to reference Winter, B., Matlock, T., Shaki, S., & Fischer, M. H. (2015). Mental number space in three dimensions. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 57, 209–219. PubMed Winter, B., Matlock, T., Shaki, S., & Fischer, M. H. (2015). Mental number space in three dimensions. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 57, 209–219. PubMed
go back to reference Wood, G., Nuerk, H. C., & Willmes, K. (2006). Crossed hands and the Snarc effect: A failure to Replicate Dehaene, Bossini and Giraux (1993). Cortex, 42(8), 1069–1079. PubMed Wood, G., Nuerk, H. C., & Willmes, K. (2006). Crossed hands and the Snarc effect: A failure to Replicate Dehaene, Bossini and Giraux (1993). Cortex, 42(8), 1069–1079. PubMed
go back to reference Wood, G., Willmes, K., Nuerk, H.-C., & Fischer, M. H. (2008). On the cognitive link between space and number: A meta-analysis of the SNARC effect. Psychology Science Quarterly, 50(4), 489–525. Wood, G., Willmes, K., Nuerk, H.-C., & Fischer, M. H. (2008). On the cognitive link between space and number: A meta-analysis of the SNARC effect. Psychology Science Quarterly, 50(4), 489–525.
go back to reference Woodin, G., & Winter, B. (2018). Placing abstract concepts in space: quantity, time and emotional valence. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2169. PubMedPubMedCentral Woodin, G., & Winter, B. (2018). Placing abstract concepts in space: quantity, time and emotional valence. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2169. PubMedPubMedCentral
Metagegevens
Titel
Low numbers from a low head? Effects of observed head orientation on numerical cognition
Auteurs
Felix J. Götz
Anne Böckler
Andreas B. Eder
Publicatiedatum
20-07-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 8/2020
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01221-2

Andere artikelen Uitgave 8/2020

Psychological Research 8/2020 Naar de uitgave