Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

22-05-2021 | Original Article

Idiographic Network Models of Social Media Use and Depression Symptoms

Auteurs: Micaela Rodriguez, George Aalbers, Richard J. McNally

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 1/2022

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Background

Disentangling the impact of social media use on well-being is a priority for psychological research. Numerous studies suggest that active social media use (ASMU) enhances well-being, whereas passive social media use (PSMU) undermines it. However, such research has conducted group-level analyses, potentially obscuring individual differences. We examined person-centered relationships between SMU and depression symptoms by using a publicly available experience sampling dataset (Aalbers Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 148: 1454–1462, 2019)

Methods

Dutch undergraduate students (N = 125) reported PSMU, ASMU, and depression symptoms 7 times daily for 14 days. We (a) visualized interindividual variability in temporal associations between social media use and individual depression symptoms, (b) compared the aggregate network model to idiographic models, and (c) determined the distribution of person-specific temporal associations.

Results

Overall, we found that associations between social media use and depression symptoms differed substantially from individual to individual in both strength and kind. In addition, PSMU and ASMU were very weakly to weakly associated with depression symptoms for most individuals.

Conclusions

Studying idiographic relationships between social media use and depression may help us (1) determine which individuals are most at risk of experiencing elevated depression symptoms after using social media and (2) personalize therapeutic treatments to alleviate symptoms.
Voetnoten
1
H1: Individuals did not differ in contemporaneous associations between any variable.
H2a: The correlation between average level of loneliness and person-specific associations from PSMU to loneliness was not significant, r = − 0.033, 95CI  [− 0.208, 0.143), t(123) = − 0.372, p = 0.710.
H2b: The correlation between average level of loneliness and person-specific associations from ASMU to loneliness was not significant, r = − 0.060, 95CI  [− 0.234, 0.116), t(123) = − 0.672, p = 0.503.
H3: Individuals did not differ in contemporaneous associations between any variable.
H4a: The correlation between average level of self-esteem and person-specific associations from PSMU to inferiority feelings was not significant, r = − 0.041, 95CI  [− 0.215, 0.136), t(123) = − 0.452, p = 0.652.
H4b: The correlation between average level of self-esteem and person-specific associations from ASMU to inferiority feelings was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (alpha = .05/4 = .0125), r = − 0.20, 95CI  [− 0.359, − 0.021), t(123) =  − 2.216, p = 0.029.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Aalbers, G., McNally, R. J., Heeren, A., De Wit, S., & Fried, E. I. (2019). Social media and depression symptoms: A network perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148, 1454–1462.CrossRef Aalbers, G., McNally, R. J., Heeren, A., De Wit, S., & Fried, E. I. (2019). Social media and depression symptoms: A network perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148, 1454–1462.CrossRef
go back to reference Andreassen, C. S. (2015). Online social network site addiction: A comprehensive review. Current Addiction Reports, 2, 175–184.CrossRef Andreassen, C. S. (2015). Online social network site addiction: A comprehensive review. Current Addiction Reports, 2, 175–184.CrossRef
go back to reference Appel, M., Marker, C., & Gnambs, T. (2020). Are social media ruining our lives? A review of meta-analytic evidence. Review of General Psychology, 24, 60–74.CrossRef Appel, M., Marker, C., & Gnambs, T. (2020). Are social media ruining our lives? A review of meta-analytic evidence. Review of General Psychology, 24, 60–74.CrossRef
go back to reference Aubrey, J. S., & Rill, L. (2013). Investigating relations between Facebook use and social capital among college undergraduates. Communication Quarterly, 61, 479–496.CrossRef Aubrey, J. S., & Rill, L. (2013). Investigating relations between Facebook use and social capital among college undergraduates. Communication Quarterly, 61, 479–496.CrossRef
go back to reference Best, P., Manktelow, R., & Taylor, B. (2014). Online communication, social media and adolescent wellbeing: A systematic narrative review. Children and Youth Services Review, 41, 27–36.CrossRef Best, P., Manktelow, R., & Taylor, B. (2014). Online communication, social media and adolescent wellbeing: A systematic narrative review. Children and Youth Services Review, 41, 27–36.CrossRef
go back to reference Beyens, I., Pouwels, J. L., van Driel, I. I., Keijsers, L., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2020). The effect of social media on well-being differs from adolescent to adolescent. Scientific Reports, 10, 1–11.CrossRef Beyens, I., Pouwels, J. L., van Driel, I. I., Keijsers, L., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2020). The effect of social media on well-being differs from adolescent to adolescent. Scientific Reports, 10, 1–11.CrossRef
go back to reference Boers, E., Afzali, M. H., Newton, N., & Conrod, P. (2019). Association of screen time and depression in adolescence. JAMA Pediatrics, 173, 853–859.CrossRef Boers, E., Afzali, M. H., Newton, N., & Conrod, P. (2019). Association of screen time and depression in adolescence. JAMA Pediatrics, 173, 853–859.CrossRef
go back to reference Burke, M., Kraut, R., & Marlow, C. (2011). Social capital on Facebook: Differentiating uses and users. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 571–580). Burke, M., Kraut, R., & Marlow, C. (2011). Social capital on Facebook: Differentiating uses and users. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 571–580).
go back to reference Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (2009). Perceived social isolation and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 447–454.CrossRef Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (2009). Perceived social isolation and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 447–454.CrossRef
go back to reference Coyne, S. M., Rogers, A. A., Zurcher, J. D., Stockdale, L., & Booth, M. (2020). Does time spent using social media impact mental health? An eight-year longitudinal study. Computers in Human Behavior, 104, 106160.CrossRef Coyne, S. M., Rogers, A. A., Zurcher, J. D., Stockdale, L., & Booth, M. (2020). Does time spent using social media impact mental health? An eight-year longitudinal study. Computers in Human Behavior, 104, 106160.CrossRef
go back to reference Ellison, W. D., Trahan, A. C., Pinzon, J. C., Gillespie, M. E., Simmons, L. M., & King, K. Y. (2020). For whom, and for what, is experience sampling more accurate than retrospective report? Personality and Individual Differences, 163, 110071.CrossRef Ellison, W. D., Trahan, A. C., Pinzon, J. C., Gillespie, M. E., Simmons, L. M., & King, K. Y. (2020). For whom, and for what, is experience sampling more accurate than retrospective report? Personality and Individual Differences, 163, 110071.CrossRef
go back to reference Epskamp, S., Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., Schmittmann, V.D., & Borsboom, D. (2012). qgraph: Network visualization of relationships in psychometric data. Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 1–18. http://www.jstatsoft.org/ Epskamp, S., Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., Schmittmann, V.D., & Borsboom, D. (2012). qgraph: Network visualization of relationships in psychometric data. Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 1–18. http://​www.​jstatsoft.​org/​
go back to reference Epskamp, S., Deserno, M. K., & Bringmann, L. F. (2017). mlVAR: multi-level vector autoregression. R package version, 42. Epskamp, S., Deserno, M. K., & Bringmann, L. F. (2017). mlVAR: multi-level vector autoregression. R package version42.
go back to reference Epskamp, S., van Borkulo, C. D., van der Veen, D. C., Servaas, M. N., Isvoranu, A. M., Riese, H., & Cramer, A. O. (2018). Personalized network modeling in psychopathology: The importance of contemporaneous and temporal connections. Clinical Psychological Science, 6, 416–427.CrossRef Epskamp, S., van Borkulo, C. D., van der Veen, D. C., Servaas, M. N., Isvoranu, A. M., Riese, H., & Cramer, A. O. (2018). Personalized network modeling in psychopathology: The importance of contemporaneous and temporal connections. Clinical Psychological Science, 6, 416–427.CrossRef
go back to reference Faelens, L., Hoorelbeke, K., Soenens, B., Van Gaeveren, K., De Marez, L., De Raedt, R., & Koster, E. H. (2021). Social media use and well-being: A prospective experience-sampling study. Computers in Human Behavior, 114, 106510.CrossRef Faelens, L., Hoorelbeke, K., Soenens, B., Van Gaeveren, K., De Marez, L., De Raedt, R., & Koster, E. H. (2021). Social media use and well-being: A prospective experience-sampling study. Computers in Human Behavior, 114, 106510.CrossRef
go back to reference Fisher, A. J., Reeves, J. W., Lawyer, G., Medaglia, J. D., & Rubel, J. A. (2017). Exploring the idiographic dynamics of mood and anxiety via network analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126, 1044.CrossRef Fisher, A. J., Reeves, J. W., Lawyer, G., Medaglia, J. D., & Rubel, J. A. (2017). Exploring the idiographic dynamics of mood and anxiety via network analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126, 1044.CrossRef
go back to reference Forest, A. L., & Wood, J. V. (2012). When social networking is not working: Individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook. Psychological Science, 23, 295–302.CrossRef Forest, A. L., & Wood, J. V. (2012). When social networking is not working: Individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook. Psychological Science, 23, 295–302.CrossRef
go back to reference Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2015). The impact of daily stress on adolescents’ depressed mood: The role of social support seeking through Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 315–325.CrossRef Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2015). The impact of daily stress on adolescents’ depressed mood: The role of social support seeking through Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 315–325.CrossRef
go back to reference Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2016). Exploring the relationships between different types of Facebook use, perceived online social support and adolescents’ depressed mood. Social Science Computer Review, 34, 153–171.CrossRef Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2016). Exploring the relationships between different types of Facebook use, perceived online social support and adolescents’ depressed mood. Social Science Computer Review, 34, 153–171.CrossRef
go back to reference Gonzales, A. L., & Hancock, J. T. (2011). Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: Effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 79–83.CrossRef Gonzales, A. L., & Hancock, J. T. (2011). Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: Effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 79–83.CrossRef
go back to reference Haferkamp, N., & Krämer, N. C. (2011). Social comparison 2.0: Examining the effects of online profiles on social-networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 309–314.CrossRef Haferkamp, N., & Krämer, N. C. (2011). Social comparison 2.0: Examining the effects of online profiles on social-networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 309–314.CrossRef
go back to reference Howe, E., Bosley, H. G., & Fisher, A. J. (2020). Idiographic network analysis of discrete mood states prior to treatment. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 20, 470–478.CrossRef Howe, E., Bosley, H. G., & Fisher, A. J. (2020). Idiographic network analysis of discrete mood states prior to treatment. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 20, 470–478.CrossRef
go back to reference Kagan, J. (2021). A trio of pursuits: Puzzles in human development. World Scientific Publishing. Kagan, J. (2021). A trio of pursuits: Puzzles in human development. World Scientific Publishing.
go back to reference Keijsers, L., & Van Roekel, E. (2018). Longitudinal methods in adolescent psychology: Where could we go from here? And should we? Reframing Adolescent Research. London & New York: Routledge. Keijsers, L., & Van Roekel, E. (2018). Longitudinal methods in adolescent psychology: Where could we go from here? And should we? Reframing Adolescent Research. London & New York: Routledge.
go back to reference Kleiman, E. M., Turner, B. J., Fedor, S., Beale, E. E., Huffman, J. C., & Nock, M. K. (2017). Examination of real-time fluctuations in suicidal ideation and its risk factors: Results from two ecological momentary assessment studies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126, 726–738. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000273CrossRefPubMed Kleiman, E. M., Turner, B. J., Fedor, S., Beale, E. E., Huffman, J. C., & Nock, M. K. (2017). Examination of real-time fluctuations in suicidal ideation and its risk factors: Results from two ecological momentary assessment studies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126, 726–738. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​abn0000273CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Demiralp, E., Park, J., Lee, D. S., Lin, N., & Ybarra, O. (2013). Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults. PLoS One, 8, e69841.CrossRef Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Demiralp, E., Park, J., Lee, D. S., Lin, N., & Ybarra, O. (2013). Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults. PLoS One, 8, e69841.CrossRef
go back to reference Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Sheppes, G., Costello, C. K., Jonides, J., & Ybarra, O. (2020). Social media and well-being: Pitfalls, progress, and next steps. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 25, 55–66.CrossRef Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Sheppes, G., Costello, C. K., Jonides, J., & Ybarra, O. (2020). Social media and well-being: Pitfalls, progress, and next steps. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 25, 55–66.CrossRef
go back to reference Liu, D., Baumeister, R. F., Yang, C. C., & Hu, B. (2019). Digital communication media use and psychological well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 24, 259–273.CrossRef Liu, D., Baumeister, R. F., Yang, C. C., & Hu, B. (2019). Digital communication media use and psychological well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 24, 259–273.CrossRef
go back to reference Lup, K., Trub, L., & Rosenthal, L. (2015). Instagram #instasad? Exploring associations among Instagram use, depressive symptoms, negative social comparison, and strangers followed. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18, 247–252.CrossRef Lup, K., Trub, L., & Rosenthal, L. (2015). Instagram #instasad? Exploring associations among Instagram use, depressive symptoms, negative social comparison, and strangers followed. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18, 247–252.CrossRef
go back to reference McNally, R. J. (2018). Resolving the vulnerability paradox in the cross-national prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 54, 33–35.CrossRef McNally, R. J. (2018). Resolving the vulnerability paradox in the cross-national prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 54, 33–35.CrossRef
go back to reference McNally, R. J. (2021). Network analysis of psychopathology: Controversies and challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 17, 31–53.CrossRef McNally, R. J. (2021). Network analysis of psychopathology: Controversies and challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology17, 31–53.CrossRef
go back to reference Molenaar, P. C. (2004). A manifesto on psychology as idiographic science: Bringing the person back into scientific psychology, this time forever. Measurement, 2(4), 201–218. Molenaar, P. C. (2004). A manifesto on psychology as idiographic science: Bringing the person back into scientific psychology, this time forever. Measurement, 2(4), 201–218.
go back to reference Moreno, M. A., Jelenchick, L., Koff, R., & Eickhoff, J. (2012). Depression and Internet use among older adolescents: An experience sampling approach. Psychology, 3, 743–748.CrossRef Moreno, M. A., Jelenchick, L., Koff, R., & Eickhoff, J. (2012). Depression and Internet use among older adolescents: An experience sampling approach. Psychology, 3, 743–748.CrossRef
go back to reference Nadkarni, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). Why do people use Facebook? Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 243–249.CrossRef Nadkarni, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). Why do people use Facebook? Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 243–249.CrossRef
go back to reference Rodriguez, M., Bellet, B. W., & McNally, R. J. (2020). Reframing time spent alone: Reappraisal buffers the emotional effects of isolation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 44, 1052–1067.CrossRef Rodriguez, M., Bellet, B. W., & McNally, R. J. (2020). Reframing time spent alone: Reappraisal buffers the emotional effects of isolation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 44, 1052–1067.CrossRef
go back to reference Shakya, H. B., & Christakis, N. A. (2017). Association of Facebook use with compromised well-being: A longitudinal study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 185(3), 203–211.PubMed Shakya, H. B., & Christakis, N. A. (2017). Association of Facebook use with compromised well-being: A longitudinal study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 185(3), 203–211.PubMed
go back to reference Song, H., Zmyslinski-Seelig, A., Kim, J., Drent, A., Victor, A., Omori, K., & Allen, M. (2014). Does Facebook make you lonely? A meta-analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 446–452.CrossRef Song, H., Zmyslinski-Seelig, A., Kim, J., Drent, A., Victor, A., Omori, K., & Allen, M. (2014). Does Facebook make you lonely? A meta-analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 446–452.CrossRef
go back to reference Steinfield, C., Ellison, N. B., & Lampe, C. (2008). Social capital, self-esteem, and use of online social network sites: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 434–445.CrossRef Steinfield, C., Ellison, N. B., & Lampe, C. (2008). Social capital, self-esteem, and use of online social network sites: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 434–445.CrossRef
go back to reference Valkenburg, P. M., Beyens, I., Pouwels, J. L., van Driel, I. I., & Keijsers, L. (2021). Social Media Browsing and Adolescent Well-Being: Challenging the “Passive Social Media Use Hypothesis”. https://psyarxiv.com/gzu3y/ Valkenburg, P. M., Beyens, I., Pouwels, J. L., van Driel, I. I., & Keijsers, L. (2021). Social Media Browsing and Adolescent Well-Being: Challenging the “Passive Social Media Use Hypothesis”. https://​psyarxiv.​com/​gzu3y/​
go back to reference Vanhalst, J., Soenens, B., Luyckx, K., Van Petegem, S., Weeks, M. S., & Asher, S. R. (2015). Why do the lonely stay lonely? Chronically lonely adolescents’ attributions and emotions in situations of social inclusion and exclusion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 932–948. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000051CrossRefPubMed Vanhalst, J., Soenens, B., Luyckx, K., Van Petegem, S., Weeks, M. S., & Asher, S. R. (2015). Why do the lonely stay lonely? Chronically lonely adolescents’ attributions and emotions in situations of social inclusion and exclusion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 932–948. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​pspp0000051CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Verduyn, P., Gugushvili, N., & Kross, E. (2021). The impact of social network sites on mental health: Distinguishing active from passive use. World Psychiatry, 20, 133.CrossRef Verduyn, P., Gugushvili, N., & Kross, E. (2021). The impact of social network sites on mental health: Distinguishing active from passive use. World Psychiatry, 20, 133.CrossRef
go back to reference Verduyn, P., Gugushvili, N., Massar, K., Täht, K., & Kross, E. (2020). Social comparison on social networking sites. Current Opinion in Psychology, 36, 32–37.CrossRef Verduyn, P., Gugushvili, N., Massar, K., Täht, K., & Kross, E. (2020). Social comparison on social networking sites. Current Opinion in Psychology, 36, 32–37.CrossRef
go back to reference Verduyn, P., Lee, D. S., Park, J., Shablack, H., Orvell, A., Bayer, J., & Kross, E. (2015). Passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being: Experimental and longitudinal evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, 480–488.CrossRef Verduyn, P., Lee, D. S., Park, J., Shablack, H., Orvell, A., Bayer, J., & Kross, E. (2015). Passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being: Experimental and longitudinal evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, 480–488.CrossRef
go back to reference Verduyn, P., Ybarra, O., Résibois, M., Jonides, J., & Kross, E. (2017). Do social network sites enhance or undermine subjective well-being? A critical review. Social Issues and Policy Review, 11, 274–302.CrossRef Verduyn, P., Ybarra, O., Résibois, M., Jonides, J., & Kross, E. (2017). Do social network sites enhance or undermine subjective well-being? A critical review. Social Issues and Policy Review, 11, 274–302.CrossRef
go back to reference Viner, R. M., Gireesh, A., Stiglic, N., Hudson, L. D., Goddings, A. L., Ward, J. L., & Nicholls, D. E. (2019). Roles of cyberbullying, sleep, and physical activity in mediating the effects of social media use on mental health and wellbeing among young people in England: a secondary analysis of longitudinal data. Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 3, 685–696.CrossRef Viner, R. M., Gireesh, A., Stiglic, N., Hudson, L. D., Goddings, A. L., Ward, J. L., & Nicholls, D. E. (2019). Roles of cyberbullying, sleep, and physical activity in mediating the effects of social media use on mental health and wellbeing among young people in England: a secondary analysis of longitudinal data. Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 3, 685–696.CrossRef
go back to reference Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Roberts, L. R., & Eckles, K. (2014). Social comparison, social media, and self-esteem. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 3, 206–222.CrossRef Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Roberts, L. R., & Eckles, K. (2014). Social comparison, social media, and self-esteem. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 3, 206–222.CrossRef
go back to reference Waterloo, S. F., Baumgartner, S. E., Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2018). Norms of online expressions of emotion: Comparing Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and WhatsApp. New Media & Society, 20, 1813–1831.CrossRef Waterloo, S. F., Baumgartner, S. E., Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2018). Norms of online expressions of emotion: Comparing Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and WhatsApp. New Media & Society, 20, 1813–1831.CrossRef
go back to reference Wickham, H., Chang, W., Henry, L., Pedersen, T. L., Takahashi, K., Wilke, C., Woo, K., Yutani, H., & Dunnington, D. (2016). Package ‘ggplot2’: Create elegant data visualisations using the grammar of graphics. Version 2 (pp. 1–189). Wickham, H., Chang, W., Henry, L., Pedersen, T. L., Takahashi, K., Wilke, C., Woo, K., Yutani, H., & Dunnington, D. (2016). Package ‘ggplot2’: Create elegant data visualisations using the grammar of graphics. Version 2 (pp. 1–189).
go back to reference Yang, C. C. (2016). Instagram use, loneliness, and social comparison orientation: Interact and browse on social media, but don’t compare. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 19, 703–708.CrossRef Yang, C. C. (2016). Instagram use, loneliness, and social comparison orientation: Interact and browse on social media, but don’t compare. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 19, 703–708.CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Idiographic Network Models of Social Media Use and Depression Symptoms
Auteurs
Micaela Rodriguez
George Aalbers
Richard J. McNally
Publicatiedatum
22-05-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 1/2022
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-021-10236-2

Andere artikelen Uitgave 1/2022

Cognitive Therapy and Research 1/2022 Naar de uitgave