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28-07-2021 | Brief Report

Rumination and Emotional Modulation of the Attentional Blink

Auteurs: Tal Ganor, Nilly Mor, Jonathan D. Huppert

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 1/2022

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Abstract

Rumination about negative experiences is widely viewed as a transdiagnostic process underlying various forms of psychopathology that involve emotion dysregulation. Cognitive models highlight the role of attentional control and emotional biases in the development and maintenance of rumination. We suggest that the temporality of the attentional blink paradigm may make it especially relevant for studying rumination-related biases and designing bias modification interventions for rumination. In this paper, we examine the association between brooding, a maladaptive form of rumination, and emotional biases in the attentional blink paradigm. We show that brooding is associated with biased disengagement from positive stimuli. Our findings support the Attentional Scope Model of rumination (Whitmer and Gotlib, Psychol Bull 139:1036, 2013) in suggesting that rumination is associated with a narrow temporal attentional scope.
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Voetnoten
1
To validate and demonstrate the general (non-emotional) attentional blink effect (Dux & Marois, 2009) in our sample, we submitted T2 misidentification rates on non-emotional trials to a repeated measures analysis of variance with lag (1–4) as a within-subject variable. Consistent with the typical blink effect, we found a significant effect of lag [F(3,78) = 75.32, p < .0001, partial η2= .74].
 
2
We also collected data on trait depression (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II; Beck et al., 1996), anxiety (trait subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Spielberger, 1983), worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire; Meyer et al., 1990) and emotion regulation (Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; Gross & John, 2003) for exploratory purposes. Analyses pertaining to these instruments are, therefore, not reported here.
 
3
We chose to compare lags 1 and 4 based on previous research on the attentional blink in rumination (Onie & Most, 2017) and depression (Koster et al., 2009).
 
4
As some argue in favor of breaking down marginally significant interactions (e.g., Klein & Ross, 1993), we ran follow-up analyses examining the effect of valence and brooding in each lag. In lag 1, we did not find an effect of valence [F(1,77) = .001, p = .97,  partial η2 < .0001], but we found a marginally significant valence by brooding interaction [F(1,77) = 2.99, p = .09, partial η2 = .04]. As a follow-up analysis, we then created a negativity bias score by regressing negative onto neutral trials and saving the unstandardized residual. We found a small albeit insignificant correlation between negativity bias scores and brooding (r =  .17, p = .12).
 
Literatuur
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go back to reference Mor, N., Horef, A., Stern, N., & Perlman, B. (in preparation). Refreshing emotional information only when it is relevant: A training procedure to reduce rumination. Mor, N., Horef, A., Stern, N., & Perlman, B. (in preparation). Refreshing emotional information only when it is relevant: A training procedure to reduce rumination.
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Metagegevens
Titel
Rumination and Emotional Modulation of the Attentional Blink
Auteurs
Tal Ganor
Nilly Mor
Jonathan D. Huppert
Publicatiedatum
28-07-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 1/2022
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-021-10251-3

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