Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
This paper explores the dynamics of caregiver rejection experienced by 40 homeless young adults 19–21 years of age. Using qualitative interviews, our findings reveal that nearly all of the youth reported at least one type of familial rejection that was intertwined with wider household conflict, and several youth experienced multiple types of rejection. Many young people reported “feeling like an outsider,” as they felt marginalized by family members and perceived a sense of outsiderness within their family networks. Some youth cited rejection when they were “betrayed by a primary caregiver for a significant other.” These intimate partners, such as a boyfriend, girlfriend or stepparent, often abused the young person, which exacerbated their experiences with caregiver rejection. Numerous youth were “pushed into institutional living,” such as foster care or group homes, at the behest of their primary caregivers, which stemmed from familial discord and behavioral issues on the part of the young person. In the most explicit form of rejection, youth were “kicked out by a caregiver” and subsequently entered into street life when they had nowhere else to go. Implications of these experiences are discussed, which can impact homeless young people’s future life chances as they attempt to exit the street.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Barker, J. D. (2012). Social capital, homeless young people and the family. Journal of Youth Studies, 15, 730–743. CrossRef
Boyatzis, R. E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Brestan, E. V., Eyberg, S. M., Algina, J., Johnson, S. B., & Boggs, S. R. (2003). How annoying is it? Defining parental tolerance for child misbehavior. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 25, 1–15. CrossRef
Chamberlain, C., & MacKenzie, D. (2008). Counting the homeless. Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra (AUST): Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Charmaz, K. (1995). Grounded theory. In J. A. Smith, R. Harré, & L. V. Langenhove (Eds.), Rethinking methods in psychology (pp. 27–49). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. CrossRef
Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, K. M., Bender, K., Thompson, S. J., Maccio, E. M., & Pollio, D. (2012). Employment status and income generation among homeless young adults: Results from a five-city, mixed methods study. Youth & Society, 44, 385–407. CrossRef
Gaetz, S. (2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 46, 423–456. CrossRef
Hale, W. W, I. I. I., VanderValk, I., Akse, J., & Meeus, W. (2008). The interplay of early adolescents’ depressive symptoms, aggression and perceived parental rejection: A four-year community study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 928–940. CrossRef
Hardt, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: Review of the evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 25, 260–273. CrossRef
Hendy, H. M., Weiner, K., Bakerofskie, J., Eggen, D., Gustitus, C., & McLeod, K. C. (2003). Comparison of six models for violent romantic relationships in college men and women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 645–665. CrossRef
Hyman, S., Aubry, T., & Klodawsky, F. (2011). Resilient educational outcomes: Participation in school by youth with histories of homelessness. Youth & Society, 43, 253–273. CrossRef
Kennedy, A. C., Agbenyiga, D. L., Kasiborski, N., & Gladden, J. (2010). Risk chains over the life course among homeless urban adolescent mothers: Altering their trajectories through formal support. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 1740–1749. CrossRef
Khaleque, A., & Rohner, R. P. (2002). Perceived parental acceptance-rejection and psychological adjustment: A meta-analysis of cross-cultural and intracultural studies. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 54–64. CrossRef
Kidd, S. A. (2003). Street youth: Coping and interventions. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 20, 235–261. CrossRef
Kidd, S. A. (2007). Youth homelessness and social stigma. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 291–299. CrossRef
Kidd, S. A., & Davidson, L. (2007). You have to adapt because you have no other choice’: The stories of strength and resilience of 208 homeless youth in New York City and Toronto. Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 219–238. CrossRef
MacLean, M. G., Embry, L. E., & Cauce, A. M. (1999). Homeless adolescents’ paths to separation from family: Comparison of family characteristics, psychological adjustment and victimization. Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 179–187. CrossRef
Magaro, M. M., & Weisz, J. R. (2006). Perceived control mediates the relation between parental rejection and youth depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 863–872. CrossRef
Mallett, S., Rosenthal, D., Keys, D., & Averill, R. (2009). Moving out, moving on: Young people’s pathways in and through homelessness. New York: Routledge.
Mayock, P., Corr, M. L., & O’Sullivan, E. (2011). Homeless young people, families and change: Family support as a facilitator to exiting homelessness. Child & Family Social Work, 16, 391–401. CrossRef
Mayock, P., Corr, M. L., & O’Sullivan, E. (2013). Moving on, not out: When young people remain homeless. Journal of Youth Studies, 16, 441–459. CrossRef
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Miles, B. W., & Okamoto, S. K. (2008). The social construction of deviant behavior in homeless and runaway youth: Implications for practice. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 25, 425–441. CrossRef
National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE), the National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth (NAEHCY). (2010). Definitions of homelessness for federal programs serving children, youth, and families. http://center.serve.org/nche/ibt/sc_eligibility.php. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
National Center on Family Homelessness. (2011). The characteristics and needs of families experiencing homelessness. Needham, MA: National Center on Family Homelessness. www.familyhomelessness.org/media/147.pdf. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). (2013). Homeless and runaway youth. Washington, DC. http://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/homeless-and-runaway-youth.aspx. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
Neuman, W. L. (2011). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Paradise, M., & Cauce, A. M. (2002). Home street home: The interpersonal dimensions of adolescent homelessness. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2, 223–238. CrossRef
Rhule-Louie, D. M., Bowen, S., Baer, J. S., & Peterson, P. L. (2008). Substance use and health and safety among homeless youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 17, 306–319. CrossRef
Rohner, R. P., Khaleque, A., & Cournoyer, D. E. (2005). Parental acceptance-rejection: Theory, methods, cross-cultural evidence, and implications. Ethos, 33, 299–334. CrossRef
Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (1991). Serving runaway and homeless youths. Family and Community Health, 14, 23–32.
Scholte, R. H. J., van Lieshout, C. F. M., & van Aken, M. A. G. (2001). Perceived relational support in adolescence: Dimensions, configurations and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 71–94. CrossRef
Slesnick, N., Erdem, G., Collins, J., Patton, R., & Buettner, C. (2010). Prevalence of intimate partner violence reported by homeless youth in Columbus, Ohio. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25, 1579-1593.
Smith, H. (2008). Searching for kinship: The creation of street families among homeless youth. American Behavioral Scientist, 51, 756–771. CrossRef
Thompson, S. J., Bender, K., Windsor, L., Cook, M. S., & Williams, T. (2010). Homeless youth: Characteristics, contributing factors and service options. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 20, 193–217. CrossRef
Tyler, K. A., & Bersani, B. E. (2008). A longitudinal study of early adolescent precursors to running away. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 230–251. CrossRef
Tyler, K. A., & Whitbeck, L. B. (2004). Lost childhoods: Risk and resiliency among runaway and homeless adolescents. In P. Allen-Meares & M. W. Fraser (Eds.), Intervention with children and adolescents: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 378–397). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Whitbeck, L. B., & Hoyt, D. R. (1999). Nowhere to grow: Homeless and runaway adolescents and their families. New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Wilson, S., Cunningham-Burley, S., Bancroft, A., & Backett-Milburn, K. (2012). The consequences of love: Young people and family practices in difficult circumstances. The Sociological Review, 60, 110–128. CrossRef
Wright, J. D. (2009). Address unknown: The homeless in America. New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Yoder, K. A., Whitbeck, L. B., & Hoyt, D. R. (2003). Gang involvement and membership among homeless and runaway youth. Youth & Society, 34, 441–467. CrossRef
- Homeless Young People’s Experiences of Caregiver Rejection
Rachel M. Schmitz
Kimberly A. Tyler
- Springer US