Children in foster care are an especially vulnerable population with multiple levels of emotional, mental, social and behavioral needs. Research indicates that children in foster care have significant developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges. The results of this Northeast County study indicate that children in foster care settings have a higher rate of mental health diagnosis as compared to children not in foster care, however, these children also consistently receive behavioral health care and psychotropic medication because of their mental health diagnoses. The placement setting for children in foster care does not appear to be affected by a mental health diagnosis. The results of this study provide helpful information about the difficulties (including limited resources) and challenges faced today by both children in foster care and their placement caretakers.