Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 11/2016

11-07-2016 | Original Paper

Differences in Internalizing Symptoms Across Specific Ethnic Minority Groups: An Analysis Across Chinese American, Filipino American, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, and White Youth

Auteurs: Kelsie H. Okamura, Chad Ebesutani, Rachel Bloom, Charmaine K. Higa-McMillan, Brad J. Nakamura, Bruce F. Chorpita

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 11/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Research to date on child and adolescent anxiety and depression have focused predominantly on major ethnic groups. Very few studies to date have been conducted on specific ethnic minority groups and the relatively few studies on these ethnic minority samples have produced mixed findings. The following question therefore still remains: Do specific ethnic subgroups differ with respect to their expression of anxiety and depression? And do these differences differ as a function of reporter type (i.e., youth versus parent)? If the expression of internalizing symptoms differs across specific ethnic subgroups, these differences could inform approaches to assessing and treating these populations. In the current study, we therefore examined ethnic differences in anxiety and depression symptoms in ethnic subgroups. A total of 629 children and adolescents from various public and private schools, aged 8–18 years (M = 12.37, SD = 2.8) and their caregivers completed anxiety and depression scales. Multiple indicators, multiple causes confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the following specific ethic subgroups were associated with significantly greater anxiety and depression relative to Caucasian youth: Chinese American, Filipino American, Japanese American, and Native Hawaiian. These results were found only among parent (but not youth) reports. Age and low SES status was also associated with more internalizing problems among Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese American youth. Implications related to ethnic minority subgroup differences and the role of multi-informant reports in understanding the relationship between anxiety, depression and ethnic minority subgroups are discussed.
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.
go back to reference Andrade, N. N., Hishinuma, E. S., McDermott, J. F, Jr., Johnson, R. C., Goebert, D. A., Makini, G. K, Jr., et al. (2006). The National Center on Indigenous Hawaiian Behavioral Health study of prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Native Hawaiian adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 26–36. doi: 10.​1097/​01.​chi.​0000184933.​71917.​f4. CrossRefPubMed Andrade, N. N., Hishinuma, E. S., McDermott, J. F, Jr., Johnson, R. C., Goebert, D. A., Makini, G. K, Jr., et al. (2006). The National Center on Indigenous Hawaiian Behavioral Health study of prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Native Hawaiian adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 26–36. doi: 10.​1097/​01.​chi.​0000184933.​71917.​f4. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Angelino, H., Dollins, J., & Mech, E. V. (1956). Trends in the “fears and worries” of school children as related to socio-economic status and age. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 89, 263–276. CrossRef Angelino, H., Dollins, J., & Mech, E. V. (1956). Trends in the “fears and worries” of school children as related to socio-economic status and age. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 89, 263–276. CrossRef
go back to reference Bliss Kaneshiro, M. S., Kapuaola Gellert, M. P. H., & Millar, L. (2011). The challenges of collecting data on race and ethnicity in a diverse, multiethnic state. HAWAI ‘I MEDICAL, 70(8), 168–170. Bliss Kaneshiro, M. S., Kapuaola Gellert, M. P. H., & Millar, L. (2011). The challenges of collecting data on race and ethnicity in a diverse, multiethnic state. HAWAI ‘I MEDICAL, 70(8), 168–170.
go back to reference Brown, T. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guildford Press. Brown, T. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guildford Press.
go back to reference Cannon, M., & Weems, C. F. (2012). Do anxiety and depression cluster into distinct groups? A test of Tripartite model predictions in a community sample. Depression and Anxiety, 23, 453–460. CrossRef Cannon, M., & Weems, C. F. (2012). Do anxiety and depression cluster into distinct groups? A test of Tripartite model predictions in a community sample. Depression and Anxiety, 23, 453–460. CrossRef
go back to reference Chang, J. P., & Nakamura, B. J. (2013). “Help Your Keiki”: Development and implementation of a consumer-centric website on youth evidence-based practices. American Psychological Association’s Children, Youth & Families Newsletter, Spring, 2013. Chang, J. P., & Nakamura, B. J. (2013). “Help Your Keiki”: Development and implementation of a consumer-centric website on youth evidence-based practices. American Psychological Association’s Children, Youth & Families Newsletter, Spring, 2013.
go back to reference Choi, H., & Gi Park, C. (2006). Understanding adolescent depression in ethnocultural context: Updated with empirical findings. Advances in Nursing Science, 29(4), E1–E12. CrossRefPubMed Choi, H., & Gi Park, C. (2006). Understanding adolescent depression in ethnocultural context: Updated with empirical findings. Advances in Nursing Science, 29(4), E1–E12. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855. doi: 10.​1016/​S0005-7967(99)00130-8. CrossRefPubMed Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855. doi: 10.​1016/​S0005-7967(99)00130-8. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Compas, B. E. (1997). Depression in children and adolescents. In E. J. Mash & L. G. Terdal (Eds.), Assessment of childhood disorders (3rd ed., pp. 197–229). New York: Guilford Press. Compas, B. E. (1997). Depression in children and adolescents. In E. J. Mash & L. G. Terdal (Eds.), Assessment of childhood disorders (3rd ed., pp. 197–229). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Crijnen, A. A. M., Achenbach, T. M., & Verhulst, F. C. (1999). Problems reported by parents of children in multiple cultures: The Child Behavior Checklist syndrome constructs. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(4), 569–574. PubMed Crijnen, A. A. M., Achenbach, T. M., & Verhulst, F. C. (1999). Problems reported by parents of children in multiple cultures: The Child Behavior Checklist syndrome constructs. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(4), 569–574. PubMed
go back to reference Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawai'i (2005). The State of Hawai'i Data Book, 2005: A statistical abstract. Honolulu, HI: Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawai'i Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawai'i (2005). The State of Hawai'i Data Book, 2005: A statistical abstract. Honolulu, HI: Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawai'i
go back to reference Ebesutani, C., Bernstein, A., Nakamura, B. J., Chorpita, B. F., Weisz, J. R., & The Research Network on Youth Mental Health. (2010). A psychometric analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale—Parent Version in a clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: An official publication of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 38, 249–260. doi: 10.​1007/​s10802-009-9363-8. CrossRef Ebesutani, C., Bernstein, A., Nakamura, B. J., Chorpita, B. F., Weisz, J. R., & The Research Network on Youth Mental Health. (2010). A psychometric analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale—Parent Version in a clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: An official publication of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 38, 249–260. doi: 10.​1007/​s10802-009-9363-8. CrossRef
go back to reference Ebesutani, C., Chorpita, B., Higa-McMillan, C., Nakamura, B., Regan, J., & Lynch, R. (2011a). A psychometric evaluation of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale—parent version in a school sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 173–185. CrossRefPubMed Ebesutani, C., Chorpita, B., Higa-McMillan, C., Nakamura, B., Regan, J., & Lynch, R. (2011a). A psychometric evaluation of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale—parent version in a school sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 173–185. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ebesutani, C., Okamura, K., Higa-McMillan, C., & Chorpita, B. F. (2011b). A psychometric analysis of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children–Parent version in a school sample. Psychological Assessment, 23, 406–416. doi: 10.​1037/​a0022057. CrossRefPubMed Ebesutani, C., Okamura, K., Higa-McMillan, C., & Chorpita, B. F. (2011b). A psychometric analysis of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children–Parent version in a school sample. Psychological Assessment, 23, 406–416. doi: 10.​1037/​a0022057. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Fuligni, A. J., Tseng, V., & Lam, M. (1999). Attitudes toward family obligations among American adolescents with Asian, Latin American, and European backgrounds. Child Development, 70, 1030–1044. doi: 10.​1111/​1467-8624.​00075. CrossRef Fuligni, A. J., Tseng, V., & Lam, M. (1999). Attitudes toward family obligations among American adolescents with Asian, Latin American, and European backgrounds. Child Development, 70, 1030–1044. doi: 10.​1111/​1467-8624.​00075. CrossRef
go back to reference Guerrero, A. P. S., Hishinuma, E. S., Andrade, N. N., Nishimura, S. T., & Cunanan, V. L. (2006). Correlations among socioeconomic and family factors and academic, behavioral, and emotional difficulties in Filipino adolescents in Hawai’i. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 52, 343–359. doi: 10.​1177/​0020764006065146​. CrossRefPubMed Guerrero, A. P. S., Hishinuma, E. S., Andrade, N. N., Nishimura, S. T., & Cunanan, V. L. (2006). Correlations among socioeconomic and family factors and academic, behavioral, and emotional difficulties in Filipino adolescents in Hawai’i. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 52, 343–359. doi: 10.​1177/​0020764006065146​. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hishinuma, E. S., Johnson, R. C., Carlton, B. S., Andrade, N. N., Nishimura, S. T., Goebert, D. A., et al. (2004). Demographic and social variables associated with psychiatric and school-related indicators for Asian/Pacific-Islander adolescents. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50, 301–318. doi: 10.​1177/​0020764004046074​. CrossRefPubMed Hishinuma, E. S., Johnson, R. C., Carlton, B. S., Andrade, N. N., Nishimura, S. T., Goebert, D. A., et al. (2004). Demographic and social variables associated with psychiatric and school-related indicators for Asian/Pacific-Islander adolescents. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50, 301–318. doi: 10.​1177/​0020764004046074​. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hishinuma, E. S., Miyamoto, R. H., Nishimura, S. T., Goebert, D. A., Yuen, N. Y. C., Makini, G. K, Jr., et al. (2001). Prediction of anxiety disorders using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for multiethnic adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 15, 511–533. doi: 10.​1016/​S0887-6185(01)00079-2. CrossRefPubMed Hishinuma, E. S., Miyamoto, R. H., Nishimura, S. T., Goebert, D. A., Yuen, N. Y. C., Makini, G. K, Jr., et al. (2001). Prediction of anxiety disorders using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for multiethnic adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 15, 511–533. doi: 10.​1016/​S0887-6185(01)00079-2. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, CT. Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
go back to reference Kashani, J. H., & Orvaschel, H. (1990). A community study of anxiety in children and adolescents. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(3), 313–318. CrossRefPubMed Kashani, J. H., & Orvaschel, H. (1990). A community study of anxiety in children and adolescents. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(3), 313–318. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., Green, J., Gruber, M. J., Guyer, M., He, Y., et al. (2009). National comorbidity survey replication adolescent supplement (NCS-A): III. Concordance of DSM-IV/CIDI diagnoses with clinical reassessments. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(4), 386–399. doi: 10.​1097/​CHI.​0b013e31819a1cbc​. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., Green, J., Gruber, M. J., Guyer, M., He, Y., et al. (2009). National comorbidity survey replication adolescent supplement (NCS-A): III. Concordance of DSM-IV/CIDI diagnoses with clinical reassessments. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(4), 386–399. doi: 10.​1097/​CHI.​0b013e31819a1cbc​. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Kleinman, A. (1981). Normal and abnormal behavior in Chinese culture. London: D. Reidel Publishing Company. CrossRef Kleinman, A. (1981). Normal and abnormal behavior in Chinese culture. London: D. Reidel Publishing Company. CrossRef
go back to reference Kleinman, A. (1986). Social origins of distress and disease: Depression, neurasthenia and pain in modern China. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Kleinman, A. (1986). Social origins of distress and disease: Depression, neurasthenia and pain in modern China. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
go back to reference Langley, A. K., Bergman, R. L., McCracken, J., & Piacentini, J. C. (2004). Impairment in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Preliminary Examination of the Child Anxiety Impact Scale-Parent Version. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 14, 105–114. doi: 10.​1089/​1044546047738405​44. CrossRefPubMed Langley, A. K., Bergman, R. L., McCracken, J., & Piacentini, J. C. (2004). Impairment in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Preliminary Examination of the Child Anxiety Impact Scale-Parent Version. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 14, 105–114. doi: 10.​1089/​1044546047738405​44. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Leung, D. K. Y. (1984). Sociocultural and psychological influences on the adaptation of immigrant Filipino high school students in Hawaii. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. Leung, D. K. Y. (1984). Sociocultural and psychological influences on the adaptation of immigrant Filipino high school students in Hawaii. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.
go back to reference Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York: Wiley. Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Mash, E. J., & Barkley, R. A. (Eds.). (2014). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Publications. Mash, E. J., & Barkley, R. A. (Eds.). (2014). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Publications.
go back to reference McLaughlin, K. A., Hilt, L. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2007). Racial/ethnic differences in internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: An official publication of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 35, 801–816. doi: 10.​1007/​s10802-007-9128-1. CrossRef McLaughlin, K. A., Hilt, L. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2007). Racial/ethnic differences in internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: An official publication of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 35, 801–816. doi: 10.​1007/​s10802-007-9128-1. CrossRef
go back to reference Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in US adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980–989. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​jaac.​2010.​05.​017. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in US adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980–989. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​jaac.​2010.​05.​017. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Miech, R. A., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Wright, B. R. E., & Silva, P. A. (1999). Low socioeconomic status and mental disorders: A longitudinal study of selection and causation during young adulthood. American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1096–1131. doi: 10.​1086/​210137. CrossRef Miech, R. A., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Wright, B. R. E., & Silva, P. A. (1999). Low socioeconomic status and mental disorders: A longitudinal study of selection and causation during young adulthood. American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1096–1131. doi: 10.​1086/​210137. CrossRef
go back to reference Muthén, B. (1984). A general structural equation model with dichotomous, ordered categorical, and continuous latent variable indicators. Psychometrika, 49, 115–132. CrossRef Muthén, B. (1984). A general structural equation model with dichotomous, ordered categorical, and continuous latent variable indicators. Psychometrika, 49, 115–132. CrossRef
go back to reference Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. (1998–2010). MPlus statistical analysis with latent variables: User’s guide, 6th edn. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén. Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. (1998–2010). MPlus statistical analysis with latent variables: User’s guide, 6th edn. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
go back to reference Nakamura, B. J., Ebesutani, C., Bernstein, A., & Chorpita, B. F. (2009). A psychometric analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-Oriented Scales. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31, 178–189. doi: 10.​1007/​s10862-008-9119-8. CrossRef Nakamura, B. J., Ebesutani, C., Bernstein, A., & Chorpita, B. F. (2009). A psychometric analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-Oriented Scales. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31, 178–189. doi: 10.​1007/​s10862-008-9119-8. CrossRef
go back to reference Nalven, F. B. (1970). Manifest fears and worries of ghetto vs middle-class suburban children. Psychological Reports, 27(1), 285–286. CrossRefPubMed Nalven, F. B. (1970). Manifest fears and worries of ghetto vs middle-class suburban children. Psychological Reports, 27(1), 285–286. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pierse, G. J. (1976). Philippine culture patterns and psychopathology. Philippine Journal of Mental Health, 7(1), 41–46. Pierse, G. J. (1976). Philippine culture patterns and psychopathology. Philippine Journal of Mental Health, 7(1), 41–46.
go back to reference Pinter, R., & Lev, J. (1940). Worries of school children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 56, 67–76. Pinter, R., & Lev, J. (1940). Worries of school children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 56, 67–76.
go back to reference Pratt, K. C. (1945). A study of the “fears” of rural children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 67, 179–194. PubMed Pratt, K. C. (1945). A study of the “fears” of rural children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 67, 179–194. PubMed
go back to reference Ross, D. E. (2000). A method for developing a biopsychosical formulation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9(1), 1–6. CrossRef Ross, D. E. (2000). A method for developing a biopsychosical formulation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9(1), 1–6. CrossRef
go back to reference Rutter, M., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2003). Using sex differences in psychopathology to study causal mechanisms: Unifying issues and research strategies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 1092–1115. CrossRefPubMed Rutter, M., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2003). Using sex differences in psychopathology to study causal mechanisms: Unifying issues and research strategies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 1092–1115. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Siegel, J. M., Aneshensel, C. S., Taub, B., Cantwell, D. P., & Driscoll, A. K. (1998). Adolescent depressed mood in a multiethnic sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 413–427. CrossRef Siegel, J. M., Aneshensel, C. S., Taub, B., Cantwell, D. P., & Driscoll, A. K. (1998). Adolescent depressed mood in a multiethnic sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 413–427. CrossRef
go back to reference Simon, A., & Ward, L. O. (1974). Variables influencing the sources, frequency and intensity of worry in secondary school pupils. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13(4), 391–396. CrossRefPubMed Simon, A., & Ward, L. O. (1974). Variables influencing the sources, frequency and intensity of worry in secondary school pupils. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13(4), 391–396. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Treadwell, K. R. H., Flannery-Schroeder, E. C., & Kendall, P. C. (1995). Ethnicity and gender in relation to adaptive functioning, diagnostic status, and treatment outcome in children from an anxiety clinic. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 9, 373–384. doi: 10.​1016/​0887-6185(95)00018-J. CrossRef Treadwell, K. R. H., Flannery-Schroeder, E. C., & Kendall, P. C. (1995). Ethnicity and gender in relation to adaptive functioning, diagnostic status, and treatment outcome in children from an anxiety clinic. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 9, 373–384. doi: 10.​1016/​0887-6185(95)00018-J. CrossRef
go back to reference U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). HHS action plan to reduce racial and ethnic disparities: A nation free of disparities in health and health care. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). HHS action plan to reduce racial and ethnic disparities: A nation free of disparities in health and health care. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
go back to reference Weems, C. F., Taylor, L. K., Marks, A. B., & Varela, R. E. (2010). Anxiety sensitivity in childhood and adolescence: Parent reports and factors that influence associations with child reports. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34, 303–315. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-008-9222-x. CrossRef Weems, C. F., Taylor, L. K., Marks, A. B., & Varela, R. E. (2010). Anxiety sensitivity in childhood and adolescence: Parent reports and factors that influence associations with child reports. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34, 303–315. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-008-9222-x. CrossRef
go back to reference Weisz, J. R., Suwanlert, S., Chaiyasit, W., & Walter, B. R. (1987). Over- and under controlled referral problems among children and adolescents from Thailand and the United States: The wat and wai of cultural differences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 719–726. doi: 10.​1037/​0022-006X.​55.​5.​719. CrossRefPubMed Weisz, J. R., Suwanlert, S., Chaiyasit, W., & Walter, B. R. (1987). Over- and under controlled referral problems among children and adolescents from Thailand and the United States: The wat and wai of cultural differences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 719–726. doi: 10.​1037/​0022-006X.​55.​5.​719. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Willgerodt, M. A., & Thompson, E. A. (2006). Ethnic and generational influences on emotional distress and risk behaviors among Chinese and Filipino American adolescents. Research in Nursing & Health, 29, 311–324. doi: 10.​1002/​nur.​20146. CrossRef Willgerodt, M. A., & Thompson, E. A. (2006). Ethnic and generational influences on emotional distress and risk behaviors among Chinese and Filipino American adolescents. Research in Nursing & Health, 29, 311–324. doi: 10.​1002/​nur.​20146. CrossRef
go back to reference Yamaguchi-Williams, J. K., Goebert, D., Hishinuma, E., Miyamoto, R., Anzai, N., Izutsu, S., et al. (2002). A conceptual model of cultural predictors of anxiety among Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 320–333. doi: 10.​1037/​1099-9809.​8.​4.​321. CrossRef Yamaguchi-Williams, J. K., Goebert, D., Hishinuma, E., Miyamoto, R., Anzai, N., Izutsu, S., et al. (2002). A conceptual model of cultural predictors of anxiety among Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 320–333. doi: 10.​1037/​1099-9809.​8.​4.​321. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Differences in Internalizing Symptoms Across Specific Ethnic Minority Groups: An Analysis Across Chinese American, Filipino American, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, and White Youth
Auteurs
Kelsie H. Okamura
Chad Ebesutani
Rachel Bloom
Charmaine K. Higa-McMillan
Brad J. Nakamura
Bruce F. Chorpita
Publicatiedatum
11-07-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 11/2016
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0488-4