Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Although depression and anxiety are common in youth (Costello et al. 2003), factors that put children at risk for such symptoms are not well understood. The current study examined associations between early childhood cognitive control deficits and depression and anxiety over the course of development through school age. Participants were 188 children (at baseline M = 5.42 years, SD = 0.79 years) and their primary caregiver. Caregivers completed ratings of children’s executive functioning at preschool age and measures of depression and anxiety severity over seven assessment waves (a period of approximately 7.5 years). Longitudinal multilevel linear models were used to examine the effect of attention shifting and inhibition deficits on depression and anxiety. Inhibition deficits at preschool were associated with significantly greater depression severity scores at each subsequent assessment wave (up until 7.5 years later). Inhibition deficits were associated with greater anxiety severity from 3.5 to 7.5 years later. Greater shifting deficits at preschool age were associated with greater depression severity up to 5.5 years later. Shifting deficits were also associated with significantly greater anxiety severity up to 3.5 years later. Importantly, these effects were significant even after accounting for the influence of other key predictors including assessment wave/time, gender, parental education, IQ, and symptom severity at preschool age, suggesting that effects are robust. Overall, findings indicate that cognitive control deficits are an early vulnerability factor for developing affective symptoms. Timely assessment and intervention may be beneficial as an early prevention strategy.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2000). The child and adolescent psychiatric assessment (CAPA). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 39–48. CrossRef
Bayer, J. K., Ukoumunne, O. C., Lucas, N., Wake, M., Scalzo, K., & Nicholson, J. M. (2011). Risk factors for childhood mental health symptoms: national longitudinal study of Australian children. Pediatrics, 128, 865–879. CrossRef
Beck, A., Rush, A., Shaw, B., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. Guilford, New York. New York: Guilford Press.
Canivez, G. L., Konold, T. R., Collins, J. M., & Wilson, G. (2009). Construct validity of the wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence and wide range intelligence test: convergent and structural validity. School Psychology Quarterly, 24, 252–265. CrossRef
Clark, D. A., Beck, A. T., & Alford, B. A. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Connolly, S. L., Wagner, C. A., Shapero, B. G., Pendergast, L. L., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2014). Rumination prospectively predicts executive functioning impairments in adolescents. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 45, 46–56. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.07.009. CrossRefPubMed
De Lissnyder, E., Koster, E. H. W., Goubert, L., Onraedt, T., Vanderhasselt, M.-A., & De Raedt, R. (2012). Cognitive control moderates the association between stress and rumination. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 519–525. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.07.004. CrossRefPubMed
Demeyer, I., De Lissnyder, E., Koster, E. H. W., & De Raedt, R. (2012). Rumination mediates the relationship between impaired cognitive control for emotional information and depressive symptoms: a prospective study in remitted depressed adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 292–297. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.012. CrossRefPubMed
Egger, H., Ascher, B., & Angold A. (1999). Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment( PAPA), Version 1.1. Durham, NC, Center for Developmental Epidemiology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center.
Ehring, T., & Watkins, E. R. (2008). Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1, 192–205. CrossRef
Fisk, J. E., & Sharp, C. A. (2004). Age-related impairment in executive functioning: Updating, inhibition, shifting, and access. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 26, 874–890. doi: 10.1080/13803390490510680.
Fitzgerald, K. D., Liu, Y., Stern, E. R., Welsh, R. C., Hanna, G. L., Monk, C. S., et al. (2013). Reduced error-related activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex across pediatric anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 1183–1191.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.09.002. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Garber, J. (2010). Vulnerability to depression in childhood and adolescence. In R. E. Ingram, & J. M. Price (Eds.), Vulnerability to psychopathology: risk across the lifespan (pp. 189–247). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworhty, L. (2000). Behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF): professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Gioia, G. A., Espy, K. A., & Isquith, P. K. (2003). Behavior rating inventory of executive function-preschool version: professional manual. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Gross, J. J. (2014). Emotion regulation: conceptual and empirical foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed., pp. 3–20). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Hare, T. a., Tottenham, N., Galvan, A., Voss, H. U., Glover, G. H., & Casey, B. J. (2009). Biological substrates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescence during an emotional go-nogo task. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 927–934. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.03.015015.Biological. CrossRef
Ingram, R. E., & Price, J. M. (2010). Vulnerability to psychopathology: risk across the lifespan. New York: Guilford Press.
James, A.C,. James, G., Cowdrey, F.A., Soler, A., & Choke, A. (2013). Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 6, CD004690.
Ladouceur, C. D., Dahl, R. E., Williamson, D. E., Birmaher, B., Axelson, D. A., Ryan, N. D., & Casey, B. J. (2006). Processing emotional facial expressions influences performance on a go/NoGo task in pediatric anxiety and depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 47, 1107–1115. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01640.x. CrossRefPubMed
Mahone, E. M., Cirino, P. T., Cutting, L. E., Cerrone, P. M., Hagelthorn, K. M., Hiemenz, J. R., et al. (2002). Validity of the behavior rating inventory of executive function in children with ADHD and/or tourette syndrome. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: The Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 17, 643–662. CrossRef
McAuley, T., Chen, S., Goos, L., Schachar, R., & Crosbie, J. (2010). Is the behavior rating inventory of executive function more strongly associated with measures of impairment or executive function? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS, 16, 495–505. doi: 10.1017/S1355617710000093. CrossRefPubMed
Meyer, A., Proudift, G. H., Bufferd, S. G., Kujawa, A. J., Laptoook, R. S., Torpey, D. C., & Klein, D. N. (2015). Self-reported and observed punitive parenting prospectively predicts increased error related brain activity in six-year-old children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 821–829. CrossRefPubMed
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wagner, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “Frontal Lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Pscyhology, 41, 49–100.
Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., … Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2693–2698. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010076108
Monk, C. S., Telzer, E. H., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Mai, X., Louro, H. M. C., et al. (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to masked angry faces in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 568–576. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.5.568. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Monsell, S. (1996). Control of mental processes. In V. Bruce (Ed.), Unsolved mysteries of the mind: tutorial essays in cognition (pp. 93–148). Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd.
Roth, R. M., Isquith, P., & Gioia, G. A. (2014). Assessment of executive functioning using the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF). In S. Goldstein, & J. A. Naglieri (Eds.), Handbook of executive functioning (pp. 301–331). New York, New York: Springer Science + Business Media. CrossRef
Segerstrom, S. C., Tsao, J. C. I., Alden, L. E., & Craske, M. G. (2000). Worry and rumination: repetitive thought as a concomitant and predictor of negative mood. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 671–688. CrossRef
Siegle, G. J., Moore, P. M., & Thase, M. E. (2004). Rumination: one construct, many features in healthy individuals, depressed individuals, and individuals with lupus. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 645–668. CrossRef
Sylvester, C. M., Barch, D. M., Corbetta, M., Power, J. D., Schlaggar, B. L., & Luby, J. L. (2013). Resting state functional connectivity of the ventral attention network in children with a history of depression or anxiety. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 1326–1336.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.10.001. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Telzer, E. H., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Mai, X., Ernst, M., Pine, D. S., & Monk, C. S. (2008). Relationship between trait anxiety, prefrontal cortex, and attention bias to angry faces in children and adolescents. Biological Psychology, 79, 216–222. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.05.004. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
The Psychological Corporation (1999). WASI: Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. San Antonio, TX: Author.
Toplak, M. E., Bucciarelli, S. M., Jain, U., & Tannock, R. (2009). Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence, 15, 53–72 http://doi.org/10.1080/09297040802070929. CrossRef
Vanderhasselt, M. A., Brunoni, A. R., Loeys, T., Boggio, P. S., & De Raedt, R. (2013). Nosce te ipsum - socrates revisited? Controlling momentary ruminative self-referent thoughts by neuromodulation of emotional working memory. Neuropsychologia, 51, 2581–2589. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.08.011. CrossRefPubMed
Vasey, M. F., & Dadds, M. R. (2001). An introduction to the developmental psychopathology of anxiety. In M. F. Vasey, & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 3–26). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Zelazo, P. D., & Müller, U. (2002). Executive function in typical and atypical development. In U. Goaswami (Ed.), Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development (pp. 445–469). Malden: Blackwell Publishing. CrossRef
- Cognitive Control Deficits in Shifting and Inhibition in Preschool Age Children are Associated with Increased Depression and Anxiety Over 7.5 Years of Development
Sarah J. Kertz
Andy C. Belden
- Springer US