Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2/2015

01-02-2015 | Original Paper

Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

Auteurs: M. Bink, A. Popma, I. L. Bongers, G. J. M. van Boxtel, A. Denissen, Ch. van Nieuwenhuizen

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 2/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study investigated (dis)similarities in cardiac reactivity and attention task performance. In a clinical sample, adolescents diagnosed with ASD+ (n = 20) versus ADHD (n = 36) and stimulant medication use (56 %) were compared during a baseline with eyes closed and task performance. Results for cardiac reactivity were similar for both diagnostic groups. Stimulant-medicated adolescents showed decreased adaptation of LF/HF ratio and faster reaction times than stimulant-free adolescents. The current study underlines the psychophysiological overlap of ADHD symptoms in adolescents with ASD+ and adolescents with ADHD.

Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:

BSL Psychologie Totaal

Met BSL Psychologie Totaal blijf je als professional steeds op de hoogte van de nieuwste ontwikkelingen binnen jouw vak. Met het online abonnement heb je toegang tot een groot aantal boeken, protocollen, vaktijdschriften en e-learnings op het gebied van psychologie en psychiatrie. Zo kun je op je gemak en wanneer het jou het beste uitkomt verdiepen in jouw vakgebied.

Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR and TRF profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR and TRF profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.
go back to reference Althaus, M., Mulder, L. J., Mulder, G., Aarnoudse, C. C., & Minderaa, R. B. (1999). Cardiac adaptivity to attention-demanding tasks in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Biological Psychiatry, 46(6), 799–809. doi: 10.​1016/​S0006-3223(98)00374-6. PubMedCrossRef Althaus, M., Mulder, L. J., Mulder, G., Aarnoudse, C. C., & Minderaa, R. B. (1999). Cardiac adaptivity to attention-demanding tasks in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Biological Psychiatry, 46(6), 799–809. doi: 10.​1016/​S0006-3223(98)00374-6. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edn, Text Revision Ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edn, Text Revision Ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Bal, E., Harden, E., Lamb, D., Van Hecke, A. V., Denver, J. W., & Porges, S. W. (2010). Emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: Relations to eye gaze and autonomic state. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(3), 358–370. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-009-0884-3. PubMedCrossRef Bal, E., Harden, E., Lamb, D., Van Hecke, A. V., Denver, J. W., & Porges, S. W. (2010). Emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: Relations to eye gaze and autonomic state. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(3), 358–370. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-009-0884-3. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Banaschewski, T., Brandeis, D., Heinrich, H., Albrecht, B., Brunner, E., & Rothenberger, A. (2003). Association of ADHD and conduct disorder—brain electrical evidence for the existence of a distinct subtype. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(3), 356–376. doi: 10.​1111/​1469-7610.​00127. PubMedCrossRef Banaschewski, T., Brandeis, D., Heinrich, H., Albrecht, B., Brunner, E., & Rothenberger, A. (2003). Association of ADHD and conduct disorder—brain electrical evidence for the existence of a distinct subtype. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(3), 356–376. doi: 10.​1111/​1469-7610.​00127. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Barkley, R. A., DuPaul, G. J., & McMurray, M. B. (1991). Attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: Clinical response to three dose levels of methylphenidate [controlled clinical trial, research support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]. Pediatrics, 87(4), 519–531. PubMed Barkley, R. A., DuPaul, G. J., & McMurray, M. B. (1991). Attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: Clinical response to three dose levels of methylphenidate [controlled clinical trial, research support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]. Pediatrics, 87(4), 519–531. PubMed
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17. PubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beauchaine, T. P., Katkin, E. S., Strassberg, Z., & Snarr, J. (2001). Disinhibitory psychopathology in male adolescents: Discriminating conduct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through concurrent assessment of multiple autonomic states. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(4), 610–624. PubMedCrossRef Beauchaine, T. P., Katkin, E. S., Strassberg, Z., & Snarr, J. (2001). Disinhibitory psychopathology in male adolescents: Discriminating conduct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through concurrent assessment of multiple autonomic states. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(4), 610–624. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Borger, N., van der Meere, J., Ronner, A., Alberts, E., Geuze, R., & Bogte, H. (1999). Heart rate variability and sustained attention in ADHD children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(1), 25–33. PubMedCrossRef Borger, N., van der Meere, J., Ronner, A., Alberts, E., Geuze, R., & Bogte, H. (1999). Heart rate variability and sustained attention in ADHD children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(1), 25–33. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Buchhorn, R., Conzelmann, A., Willaschek, C., Stork, D., Taurines, R., & Renner, T. J. (2012). Heart rate variability and methylphenidate in children with ADHD [controlled clinical trial]. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders, 4(2), 85–91. doi: 10.​1007/​s12402-012-0072-8. PubMedCrossRef Buchhorn, R., Conzelmann, A., Willaschek, C., Stork, D., Taurines, R., & Renner, T. J. (2012). Heart rate variability and methylphenidate in children with ADHD [controlled clinical trial]. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders, 4(2), 85–91. doi: 10.​1007/​s12402-012-0072-8. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cox, D. J., Davis, M., Mikami, A. Y., Singh, H., Merkel, R. L., & Burket, R. (2012). Long-acting methylphenidate reduces collision rates of young adult drivers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 32(2), 225–230. doi: 10.​1097/​JCP.​0b013e3182496dc5​. PubMedCrossRef Cox, D. J., Davis, M., Mikami, A. Y., Singh, H., Merkel, R. L., & Burket, R. (2012). Long-acting methylphenidate reduces collision rates of young adult drivers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 32(2), 225–230. doi: 10.​1097/​JCP.​0b013e3182496dc5​. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Daluwatte, C., Miles, J. H., Christ, S. E., Beversdorf, D. Q., Takahashi, T. N., & Yao, G. (2012). Atypical pupillary light reflex and heart rate variability in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-012-1741-3. Daluwatte, C., Miles, J. H., Christ, S. E., Beversdorf, D. Q., Takahashi, T. N., & Yao, G. (2012). Atypical pupillary light reflex and heart rate variability in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-012-1741-3.
go back to reference DuPaul, G. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Power, T. J., Reid, R., Ikeda, M. J., & McGoey, K. E. (1998). Parent ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 20(1), 83–102. CrossRef DuPaul, G. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Power, T. J., Reid, R., Ikeda, M. J., & McGoey, K. E. (1998). Parent ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 20(1), 83–102. CrossRef
go back to reference Goldstein, S., & Schwebach, A. J. (2004). The comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results of a retrospective chart review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(3), 329–339. PubMedCrossRef Goldstein, S., & Schwebach, A. J. (2004). The comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results of a retrospective chart review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(3), 329–339. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gorman, E. B., Klorman, R., Thatcher, J. E., & Borgstedt, A. D. (2006). Effects of methylphenidate on subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(7), 808–816. doi: 10.​1097/​01.​chi.​0000214191.​57993.​dd. PubMedCrossRef Gorman, E. B., Klorman, R., Thatcher, J. E., & Borgstedt, A. D. (2006). Effects of methylphenidate on subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(7), 808–816. doi: 10.​1097/​01.​chi.​0000214191.​57993.​dd. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Greenhill, L. L., Swanson, J. M., Vitiello, B., Davies, M., Clevenger, W., Wu, M., et al. (2001). Impairment and deportment responses to different methylphenidate doses in children with ADHD: The MTA titration trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(2), 180–187. doi: 10.​1097/​00004583-200102000-00012. PubMedCrossRef Greenhill, L. L., Swanson, J. M., Vitiello, B., Davies, M., Clevenger, W., Wu, M., et al. (2001). Impairment and deportment responses to different methylphenidate doses in children with ADHD: The MTA titration trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(2), 180–187. doi: 10.​1097/​00004583-200102000-00012. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Groen, Y., Wijers, A. A., Mulder, L. J., Waggeveld, B., Minderaa, R. B., & Althaus, M. (2008). Error and feedback processing in children with ADHD and children with autistic spectrum disorder: An EEG event-related potential study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 119(11), 2476–2493. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​clinph.​2008.​08.​004. PubMedCrossRef Groen, Y., Wijers, A. A., Mulder, L. J., Waggeveld, B., Minderaa, R. B., & Althaus, M. (2008). Error and feedback processing in children with ADHD and children with autistic spectrum disorder: An EEG event-related potential study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 119(11), 2476–2493. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​clinph.​2008.​08.​004. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hammerness, P. G., Perrin, J. M., Shelley-Abrahamson, R., & Wilens, T. E. (2011). Cardiovascular risk of stimulant treatment in pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Update and clinical recommendations. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(10), 978–990. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​jaac.​2011.​07.​018. CrossRef Hammerness, P. G., Perrin, J. M., Shelley-Abrahamson, R., & Wilens, T. E. (2011). Cardiovascular risk of stimulant treatment in pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Update and clinical recommendations. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(10), 978–990. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​jaac.​2011.​07.​018. CrossRef
go back to reference Holtmann, M., Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2007). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in pervasive developmental disorders: Association with autistic behavior domains and coexisting psychopathology. Psychopathology, 40(3), 172–177. doi: 10.​1159/​000100007. PubMedCrossRef Holtmann, M., Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2007). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in pervasive developmental disorders: Association with autistic behavior domains and coexisting psychopathology. Psychopathology, 40(3), 172–177. doi: 10.​1159/​000100007. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jennings, J. R., van der Molen, M. W., Pelham, W., Debski, K. B., & Hoza, B. (1997). Inhibition in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as indexed by heart rate change. Developmental Psychology, 33(2), 308–318. PubMedCrossRef Jennings, J. R., van der Molen, M. W., Pelham, W., Debski, K. B., & Hoza, B. (1997). Inhibition in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as indexed by heart rate change. Developmental Psychology, 33(2), 308–318. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jorna, P. G. (1992). Spectral analysis of heart rate and psychological state: A review of its validity as a workload index. Biological Psychology, 34(2–3), 237–257. PubMedCrossRef Jorna, P. G. (1992). Spectral analysis of heart rate and psychological state: A review of its validity as a workload index. Biological Psychology, 34(2–3), 237–257. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kooij, J. J. S. (2002). ADHD in adults. Introduction to diagnosis and treatment (in Dutch (1st ed.). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger. Kooij, J. J. S. (2002). ADHD in adults. Introduction to diagnosis and treatment (in Dutch (1st ed.). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
go back to reference Kooij, J. J. S., Boonstra, A. M., Swinkels, S. H. N., Bekker, E. M., de Noord, I., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2008). Reliability, validity, and utility of instruments for self-report and informant report concerning symptoms of ADHD in adult patients. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11(4), 445–458. doi: 10.​1177/​1087054707299367​. CrossRef Kooij, J. J. S., Boonstra, A. M., Swinkels, S. H. N., Bekker, E. M., de Noord, I., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2008). Reliability, validity, and utility of instruments for self-report and informant report concerning symptoms of ADHD in adult patients. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11(4), 445–458. doi: 10.​1177/​1087054707299367​. CrossRef
go back to reference Kooij, J. J. S., Buitelaar, J. K., van den Oord, E. J., Furer, J. W., Rijnders, C. A., & Hodiamont, P. P. (2005). Internal and external validity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in a population-based sample of adults. Psychological Medicine, 35(6), 817–827. PubMedCrossRef Kooij, J. J. S., Buitelaar, J. K., van den Oord, E. J., Furer, J. W., Rijnders, C. A., & Hodiamont, P. P. (2005). Internal and external validity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in a population-based sample of adults. Psychological Medicine, 35(6), 817–827. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, J., Jordan, H., Mawhood, L., et al. (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(2), 185–212. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, J., Jordan, H., Mawhood, L., et al. (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(2), 185–212. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(5), 659–685. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(5), 659–685. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Malliani, A., Pagani, M., Lombardi, F., & Cerutti, S. (1991). Cardiovascular neural regulation explored in the frequency domain. Circulation, 84(2), 482–492. PubMedCrossRef Malliani, A., Pagani, M., Lombardi, F., & Cerutti, S. (1991). Cardiovascular neural regulation explored in the frequency domain. Circulation, 84(2), 482–492. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Negrao, B. L., Bipath, P., van der Westhuizen, D., & Viljoen, M. (2011). Autonomic correlates at rest and during evoked attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and effects of methylphenidate. Neuropsychobiology, 63(2), 82–91. doi: 10.​1159/​000317548. PubMedCrossRef Negrao, B. L., Bipath, P., van der Westhuizen, D., & Viljoen, M. (2011). Autonomic correlates at rest and during evoked attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and effects of methylphenidate. Neuropsychobiology, 63(2), 82–91. doi: 10.​1159/​000317548. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Porges, S. W. (1995). Orienting in a defensive world: Mammalian modifications of our evolutionary heritage. A polyvagal theory. Psychophysiology, 32(4), 301–318. PubMedCrossRef Porges, S. W. (1995). Orienting in a defensive world: Mammalian modifications of our evolutionary heritage. A polyvagal theory. Psychophysiology, 32(4), 301–318. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Reyes del Paso, G. A., Langewitz, W., Mulder, L. J., van Roon, A., & Duschek, S. (2013). The utility of low frequency heart rate variability as an index of sympathetic cardiac tone: A review with emphasis on a reanalysis of previous studies. Psychophysiology, 50(5), 477–487. doi: 10.​1111/​psyp.​12027. PubMedCrossRef Reyes del Paso, G. A., Langewitz, W., Mulder, L. J., van Roon, A., & Duschek, S. (2013). The utility of low frequency heart rate variability as an index of sympathetic cardiac tone: A review with emphasis on a reanalysis of previous studies. Psychophysiology, 50(5), 477–487. doi: 10.​1111/​psyp.​12027. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(20), 22–33. quiz 34–57. PubMed Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(20), 22–33. quiz 34–57. PubMed
go back to reference Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., Keskiner, A., et al. (1997). The validity of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) according to the SCID-P and its reliability. European Psychiatry, 12(5), 232–241. CrossRef Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., Keskiner, A., et al. (1997). The validity of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) according to the SCID-P and its reliability. European Psychiatry, 12(5), 232–241. CrossRef
go back to reference Stein, M. A., Sarampote, C. S., Waldman, I. D., Robb, A. S., Conlon, C., Pearl, P. L., et al. (2003). A dose-response study of OROS methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [controlled clinical trial, research support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]. Pediatrics, 112(5), e404. PubMedCrossRef Stein, M. A., Sarampote, C. S., Waldman, I. D., Robb, A. S., Conlon, C., Pearl, P. L., et al. (2003). A dose-response study of OROS methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [controlled clinical trial, research support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]. Pediatrics, 112(5), e404. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tarvainen, M. P., & Niskanen, J. P. (2008). Kubios HRV version 2.0 user guide. Finland: Biosignal Analysis and Medical Imaging Group (BSAMIG) Department of Physics University of Kuopio. Tarvainen, M. P., & Niskanen, J. P. (2008). Kubios HRV version 2.0 user guide. Finland: Biosignal Analysis and Medical Imaging Group (BSAMIG) Department of Physics University of Kuopio.
go back to reference Task Force. (1996). Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. European Heart Journal, 17(3), 354–381. CrossRef Task Force. (1996). Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. European Heart Journal, 17(3), 354–381. CrossRef
go back to reference Toichi, M., & Kamio, Y. (2003). Paradoxical autonomic response to mental tasks in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 417–426. PubMedCrossRef Toichi, M., & Kamio, Y. (2003). Paradoxical autonomic response to mental tasks in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 417–426. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Vasey, M. W., & Thayer, J. F. (1987). The continuing problem of false positives in repeated measures ANOVA in psychophysiology: A multivariate solution. Psychophysiology, 24(4), 479–486. PubMedCrossRef Vasey, M. W., & Thayer, J. F. (1987). The continuing problem of false positives in repeated measures ANOVA in psychophysiology: A multivariate solution. Psychophysiology, 24(4), 479–486. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Vink, M., & Van Wamel, A. (2007). Dutch basic ADHD program for children and adolescents (in Dutch). Leidraad voor regionale zorgprogrammering. Utrecht: Trimbos-instituut, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction. Vink, M., & Van Wamel, A. (2007). Dutch basic ADHD program for children and adolescents (in Dutch). Leidraad voor regionale zorgprogrammering. Utrecht: Trimbos-instituut, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction.
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler adult intelligence scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler adult intelligence scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Metagegevens
Titel
Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD
Auteurs
M. Bink
A. Popma
I. L. Bongers
G. J. M. van Boxtel
A. Denissen
Ch. van Nieuwenhuizen
Publicatiedatum
01-02-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 2/2015
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1929-1