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Depression and anxiety have been linked to increased somatic symptoms among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but their independent effects and role in symptom attributions remain unclear. This study examined depression and anxiety in relation to total symptoms and symptom attributions in a diverse sample of 120 adults with T2D. Multiple linear regression tested associations after controlling for medical comorbidities and insulin use. Clinician-rated depression (β = .53, p < .001), self-reported depression (β = .59, p < .001) and self-reported anxiety (β = .62, p < .001) were positively associated with total somatic symptoms. Models adjusting for depression and anxiety revealed significant independent effects for each, regardless of measurement method. In attribution models, only self-reported depression (β = .27, p = .003) was significantly associated with greater attribution to diabetes, whereas clinician-rated depression (β = .19, p = .047), self-reported depression (β = .38, p < .001) and anxiety (β = .28, p = .004) were associated with increased attribution to medications. In models adjusting for depression and anxiety, self-reported depression was a significant independent predictor of diabetes (β = .29, p = .023) and medication (β = .38, p = .004) attribution; anxiety was a significant predictor of medication attribution (β = .25, p = .039). Findings suggest depression and anxiety are implicated in overall increases in somatic symptom complaints and an increased tendency to attribute these symptoms to diabetes and side-effects of diabetes medications among adults with T2D.
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- Assessing the association of depression and anxiety with symptom reporting among individuals with type 2 diabetes
Arielle G. Asman
Claire J. Hoogendoorn
M. Diane McKee
Jeffrey S. Gonzalez
- Springer US