Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75 adults with ASD and 197 comparison cases. Also, a subset completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Three out of four subscales had high internal consistency. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity was 93%. The ASD subjects had significantly higher mean scores on all subscales. ASD females had higher scores than ASD males on the sensory motor subscale, a dimension not included in the AQ. RAADS-R showed promising test re-test reliability.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th text revised edn.). Washington, DC: Author.
Austin, E. J. (2005). Personality correlates of the Broader autism phenotype as assessed by the Autism spectrum quotient (AQ). Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 451–460. CrossRef
Barnard, J., Harvey, D., Prior, V., & Potter, A. (2001). Ignored or ineligible? The reality for adults with autism spectrum disorders. London: National Autistic Society.
Bejerot, S., & Wetterberg, L. (2008). Autism spectrum disorders and psychiatric co-morbidity in adolescents and adults. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 5, 3–9.
Boelte, S., & Puostka, F. (2000). Diagnosis of autism: The connection between current and historical information. Autism, 4, 382–390. CrossRef
Brugha, T., McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Smith, J., Scott, F. J., Purdon et al. (2009). Autism spectrum disorders in adults living in households throughout England. Report from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007, http://www.ic.nhs.uk/pubs/asdpsychiatricmorbidity07. Published Sept 22nd, 2009. Retrieved January 21st 2011.
Cederlund, M. (2007). Boys with Asperger syndrome grown up: A longitudinal follow up study of 100 cases more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Gothenburg: Gothenburg University.
Gillberg, C. (2002). A guide to Asperger syndrome. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Hendricks, D. R., & Wehman, P. (2009). Transition from school to adulthood for youth with autism spectrum disorders: Review and recommendations. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 24, 77–88. CrossRef
Hurst, R. M., Mitchell, J. T., Kimbrel, N. A., Kwapil, T. K., & Nelson-Gray, R. O. (2007). Examination of the reliability and factor structure of the autism spectrum quotient (AS) in a non-clinical sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1938–1949. CrossRef
Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250. Reprinted in L. Kanner, Childhood psychosis: Initial studies and new insights (Washington, DC: V. H. Winston, pp. 1–43).
Ketelaars, C., Horwitz, E., Sytema, S., Bos, J., Wiersma, D., Minderaa, R., et al. (2007). Brief report: Adults with mild autism spectrum disorders (ASD): Scores on the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) and comorbid psychopathology. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 176–180. PubMedCrossRef
Leekam, S. R., Libby, S. J., Wing, L., Gould, J., & Taylor, C. (2002). The diagnostic interview for social and communication disorders: Algorithms for ICD-10 childhood autism and Wing and Gould autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43, 327–342. CrossRef
Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr, Leventhal, B. L., Di Lavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observations schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. PubMedCrossRef
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill: New York.
Ritvo, R. A., Ritvo E. R., Guthrie, D., Ritvo, M. J., Hufnagel D. H., McMahon W. et al. (2010). The Ritvo Autism Asperger diagnostic scale-revised (RAADS-R): A scale to assist the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in adults: An international validation study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print].
Rydén, E., & Bejerot, S. (2008). Autism spectrum disorder in an adult psychiatric population. A naturalistic cross sectional controlled study. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 5, 13–21. http://www.clinicalneuropsychiatry.org/.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.
Tantam, D. (1991). Asperger syndrom in adulthood. In U. Frith (Ed.), Autism and Asperger syndrome (pp. 147–183). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University press. CrossRef
Volkmar, F. R., Klin, A., & Cohen, D. J. (1997). Diagnosis and classification of autism and related conditions: Consensus and issues. In D. J. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 5–40). New York, NY: Wiley.
- The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults
Lisa M. J. Andersen
Riva Ariella Ritvo
- Springer US