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30-03-2021 | Uitgave 9/2021

Quality of Life Research 9/2021

The association between nonrestorative sleep and health-related quality of life in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 9/2021
S. Li, D. Y. T. Fong, J. Y. H. Wong, B. McPherson, E. Y. Y. Lau, M. S. M. Ip
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Sleep problems are prevalent among the general population and can cause various health problems, which may lead to decreased quality of life. However, little is known about nonrestorative sleep and its implications. This study aimed to examine the association between nonrestorative sleep and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in Chinese adults.


Data were collected through a cross-sectional study of 500 adults in Hong Kong (66.4% female, average age of 39 years). The Short-Form-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2), Nonrestorative Sleep Scale (NRSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, ENRICHD Social Support Instrument, Patient Health Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were administered. Objective sleep parameters were based on participants’ sleep condition over 1 week, as measured using an ActiGraph GT9X Link.


Mean standardized scores for the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the SF-12v2 and the NRSS were 50.33 ± 6.50, 49.00 ± 9.03, and 64.77 ± 12.75, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, sleep quality, objective sleep parameters, social support, somatic symptoms, stress, anxiety, and depression, NRSS scores were associated with PCS (b = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.18, p < 0.001) and MCS (b = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.02 to 0.15, p = 0.013) scores. Furthermore, associations of NRSS score with PCS as well as MCS scores were stronger in women than in men.


Nonrestorative sleep is a potentially modifiable risk factor for poor HRQL. Thus, interventions to relieve or decrease nonrestorative sleep could be beneficial for improving HRQL.

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