Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

16-11-2021 | Original Article

Six Month Trajectories of COVID-19 Experiences and Associated Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Impairment in American Adults

Auteurs: Matthew W. Gallagher, Lia J. Smith, Angela L. Richardson, Laura J. Long

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 3/2022

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Background

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on health and well-being worldwide. There is increasing research seeking to better understand the psychological impact of COVID-19 experiences. However, this research has largely been limited in size and scope.

Methods

The present study examined longitudinal trajectories of COVID-19 experiences on COVID-19 related stress, anxiety, depression, and functional impairment in a convenience sample of 788 American adults recruited through MTURK. Data was collected across four waves between March and October 2020.

Results

COVID-19 experiences were consistently associated with higher odds of probable anxiety and depression diagnoses. COVID-19 related stress also predicted large proportions of variance in anxiety, depression, and functional impairment in latent variable analyses. Overtime, the results indicated that while anxiety and depression decreased, functional impairment remained stable.

Conclusions

These findings highlight the emotional toll of the COVID-19 pandemic over time. Decreases in COVID-19 related stress, anxiety, and depression over time may reflect resiliency among respondents. Importantly, these results underscore the continued need for mental health services as associations between COVID-19 and functional impairment remained consistent over time.
Literatuur
go back to reference Bendau, A., Petzold, M. B., Pyrkosch, L. M., Maricic, L., Betzler, F., Rogoll, J., Grobe, J., Strӧhle, A., & Plag, J. (2021). Associations between COVID-19 related media consumption and symptoms of anxiety, depression and COVID-19 related fear in the general population in Germany. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 271, 283–291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-020-01171-6CrossRefPubMed Bendau, A., Petzold, M. B., Pyrkosch, L. M., Maricic, L., Betzler, F., Rogoll, J., Grobe, J., Strӧhle, A., & Plag, J. (2021). Associations between COVID-19 related media consumption and symptoms of anxiety, depression and COVID-19 related fear in the general population in Germany. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 271, 283–291. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00406-020-01171-6CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Campbell-Sills, L., Norman, S. B., Craske, M. G., Sullivan, G., Lang, A. J., Chavira, D. A., Bystritsky, A., Sherbourne, C., Roy-Byrne, P., & Stein, M. B. (2009). Validation of a brief measure of anxiety-related severity and impairment: The overall anxiety severity and impairment scale (OASIS). Journal of Affective Disorders, 112(1–3), 92–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2008.03.014CrossRefPubMed Campbell-Sills, L., Norman, S. B., Craske, M. G., Sullivan, G., Lang, A. J., Chavira, D. A., Bystritsky, A., Sherbourne, C., Roy-Byrne, P., & Stein, M. B. (2009). Validation of a brief measure of anxiety-related severity and impairment: The overall anxiety severity and impairment scale (OASIS). Journal of Affective Disorders, 112(1–3), 92–101. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jad.​2008.​03.​014CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385–396.CrossRef Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385–396.CrossRef
go back to reference Czeisler, M. E., Lane, R. I., Petrosky, E., Wiley, J. F., Christensen, A., Njai, R., Weaver, M. D., Robbins, R., Facer-Childs, E. R., Barger, L. K., Czeisler, C. A., Howard, M. E., & Rajaratnam, S. M. W. (2020). Mental health, substance use, and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic—United States, June 24–30, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69, 1049–1057. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6932a1CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Czeisler, M. E., Lane, R. I., Petrosky, E., Wiley, J. F., Christensen, A., Njai, R., Weaver, M. D., Robbins, R., Facer-Childs, E. R., Barger, L. K., Czeisler, C. A., Howard, M. E., & Rajaratnam, S. M. W. (2020). Mental health, substance use, and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic—United States, June 24–30, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69, 1049–1057. https://​doi.​org/​10.​15585/​mmwr.​mm6932a1CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Gruber, J., Prinstein, M. J., Clark, L. A., Rottenberg, J., Abramowitz, J. S., Albano, A. M., Aldao, A., Borelli, J. L., Chung, T., Davila, J., Forbes, E. E., Gee, D. G., Hall, G. C. N., Hallion, L. S., Hinshaw, S. P., Hofmann, S. G., Hollon, S. D., Joormann, J., Kazdin, A. E.,… Weinstock, L. M. (2020). Mental health and clinical psychological science in the time of COVID-19: Challenges, opportunities, and a call to action. The American Psychologist. 76, 409 Gruber, J., Prinstein, M. J., Clark, L. A., Rottenberg, J., Abramowitz, J. S., Albano, A. M., Aldao, A., Borelli, J. L., Chung, T., Davila, J., Forbes, E. E., Gee, D. G., Hall, G. C. N., Hallion, L. S., Hinshaw, S. P., Hofmann, S. G., Hollon, S. D., Joormann, J., Kazdin, A. E.,… Weinstock, L. M. (2020). Mental health and clinical psychological science in the time of COVID-19: Challenges, opportunities, and a call to action. The American Psychologist. 76, 409
go back to reference Johns Hopkins University. (2021). COVID-19 dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). Johns Hopkins University & Medicine Coronavirus Resource Center. Johns Hopkins University. (2021). COVID-19 dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). Johns Hopkins University & Medicine Coronavirus Resource Center.
go back to reference Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8: User’s reference guide. Scientific Software International. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8: User’s reference guide. Scientific Software International.
go back to reference Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. Guilford Press. Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. Guilford Press.
go back to reference Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. SAGE Publications, Inc. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. SAGE Publications, Inc.
go back to reference McEwen, B. S. (2005). Stressed or stressed out: What is the difference? Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 30(5), 315–318.PubMedPubMedCentral McEwen, B. S. (2005). Stressed or stressed out: What is the difference? Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 30(5), 315–318.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Moos, R. H., & Schaefer, J. A. (1984). The crisis of physical illness. In R. H. Moos (Ed.), Coping with physical illness (pp. 3–25). Springer.CrossRef Moos, R. H., & Schaefer, J. A. (1984). The crisis of physical illness. In R. H. Moos (Ed.), Coping with physical illness (pp. 3–25). Springer.CrossRef
go back to reference Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2017). Mplus User's Guide (8th ed.). Muthén & Muthén, Berlin. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2017). Mplus User's Guide (8th ed.). Muthén & Muthén, Berlin.
go back to reference Nyer, M., Farabaugh, A., Fehling, K., Soskin, D., Holt, D., Papakostas, G. I., Pedrelli, P., Fava, M., Pisoni, A., Vitolo, O., & Mischoulon, D. (2013). Relationship between sleep disturbance and depression, anxiety, and functioning in college students. Depression and Anxiety, 30(9), 873–880. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22064CrossRefPubMed Nyer, M., Farabaugh, A., Fehling, K., Soskin, D., Holt, D., Papakostas, G. I., Pedrelli, P., Fava, M., Pisoni, A., Vitolo, O., & Mischoulon, D. (2013). Relationship between sleep disturbance and depression, anxiety, and functioning in college students. Depression and Anxiety, 30(9), 873–880. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​da.​22064CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference O’Connor, R. C., Wetherall, K., Cleare, S., McClelland, H., Melson, A. J., Niedzwiedz, C. L., O’Carroll, R. E., O’Connor, D. B., Platt, S., Scowcroft, E., Watson, B., Zortea, T., Ferguson, E., & Robb, K. A. (2020). Mental health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: Longitudinal analyses of adults in the UK COVID-19 Mental Health & Wellbeing study. The British Journal of Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2020.212CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral O’Connor, R. C., Wetherall, K., Cleare, S., McClelland, H., Melson, A. J., Niedzwiedz, C. L., O’Carroll, R. E., O’Connor, D. B., Platt, S., Scowcroft, E., Watson, B., Zortea, T., Ferguson, E., & Robb, K. A. (2020). Mental health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: Longitudinal analyses of adults in the UK COVID-19 Mental Health & Wellbeing study. The British Journal of Psychiatry. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1192/​bjp.​2020.​212CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference PeConga, E. K., Gauthier, G. M., Holloway, A., Walker, R. S. W., Rosencrans, P. L., Zoellner, L. A., & Bedard-Gilligan, M. (2020). Resilience is spreading: Mental health within the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 12(S1), S47–S48. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000874CrossRef PeConga, E. K., Gauthier, G. M., Holloway, A., Walker, R. S. W., Rosencrans, P. L., Zoellner, L. A., & Bedard-Gilligan, M. (2020). Resilience is spreading: Mental health within the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 12(S1), S47–S48. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​tra0000874CrossRef
go back to reference Redmond, N., Richman, J., Gamboa, C. M., Albert, M. A., Sims, M., Durant, R. W., Glasser, S. P., & Safford, M. M. (2013). Perceived stress is associated with incident coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality in low- but not high-income participants in the reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke study. Journal of the American Heart Association, 2(6), e000447. https://doi.org/10.1161/jaha.113.000447CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Redmond, N., Richman, J., Gamboa, C. M., Albert, M. A., Sims, M., Durant, R. W., Glasser, S. P., & Safford, M. M. (2013). Perceived stress is associated with incident coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality in low- but not high-income participants in the reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke study. Journal of the American Heart Association, 2(6), e000447. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1161/​jaha.​113.​000447CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Thomas, K. A., & Clifford, S. (2017). Validity and mechanical turk: An assessment of exclusion methods and interactive experiments. Computers in Human Behavior, 77, 184–197.CrossRef Thomas, K. A., & Clifford, S. (2017). Validity and mechanical turk: An assessment of exclusion methods and interactive experiments. Computers in Human Behavior, 77, 184–197.CrossRef
go back to reference Turner, A., & Baker, A. L. (2010). The psychological impact of serious illness. In D. B. Cooper (Ed.), Introduction to mental health substance use (pp. 94–107). Radcliffe. Turner, A., & Baker, A. L. (2010). The psychological impact of serious illness. In D. B. Cooper (Ed.), Introduction to mental health substance use (pp. 94–107). Radcliffe.
Metagegevens
Titel
Six Month Trajectories of COVID-19 Experiences and Associated Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Impairment in American Adults
Auteurs
Matthew W. Gallagher
Lia J. Smith
Angela L. Richardson
Laura J. Long
Publicatiedatum
16-11-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 3/2022
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-021-10277-7

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2022

Cognitive Therapy and Research 3/2022 Naar de uitgave