Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Transgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260, 68 transgender youth) from study 1 and focus groups (n = 35) from study 2, we examine transgender youth’s experience of school harassment, school strategies implemented to reduce harassment, the protective role of supportive school personnel, and individual responses to harassment, including dropping out and changing schools. In both studies, we found that school harassment due to transgender identity was pervasive, and this harassment was negatively associated with feelings of safety. When schools took action to reduce harassment, students reported greater connections to school personnel. Those connections were associated with greater feelings of safety. The indirect effects of school strategies to reduce harassment on feelings of safety through connection to adults were also significant. Focus group data illuminate specific processes schools can engage in to benefit youth, and how the youth experience those interventions.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Burgess, C. (1999). Internal and external stress factors associated with the identity development of transgendered youth. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 10(3/4), 35–47.
D’Augelli, A. R., Pilkington, N. W., & Hershberger, S. L. (2002). Incidence and mental health impact of sexual orientation victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths in high school. School Psychology Quarterly, 17, 148–167. CrossRef
Di Ceglie, D., Freedman, D., McPherson, S., & Richardson, P. (2002). Children and adolescents referred to a specialist gender identity development service: Clinical features and demographic characteristics. The International Journal of Transgenderism, 6(1), http://www.symposion.com/ijt/ijtvo06no01_01.htm.
Fontaine, J. H. (2002). Transgender issues in counseling. In L. D. Burlew & D. Capuzzi (Eds.), Sexuality counseling (pp. 177–194). New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Fraser, M. W., & Terzian, M. A. (2005). Risk and resilience in child development: Practice principles and strategies. In G. P. Mallon & P. McCartt Hess (Eds.), Handbook of children, youth, and family services: Practice, policies, and programs. New York: Columbia University Press.
Goodenow, C., Szalacha, L. A., & Westheimer, K. (2006). School support groups, other school factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 573–589. CrossRef
Graytak, E. A., Kosciw, J. G., & Diaz, E. M. (2009). Harsh realities: The experiences of transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: GLSEN.
Grossman, A. H., D’Augelli, A. R., Howell, T. J., & Hubbard, S. (2005). Parents’ reactions to transgender youths’ gender nonconforming expression and identity. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 18, 3–16. CrossRef
Grossman, A. H., D’Augelli, A. R., & Salter, N. P. (2006). Male-to-female transgender youth: Gender expression milestones, gender atypicality, victimization, and parents’ responses. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 2, 71–92. CrossRef
Grossman, A. H., Haney, A. P., Edwards, P., Alessi, E. J., Ardon, M., & Howell, T. J. (2009). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth talk about experiencing and coping with school violence: A qualitative study. Journal of LGBT Youth, 6, 24–46. CrossRef
Human Rights Watch. (2001). Hatred in the hallways: Violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students in US schools. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Kosciw, J. G., & Diaz, E. M. (2005). The 2005 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network.
Kosciw, J. G., Diaz, E. M., & Greytak, E. A. (2008). 2007 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and Transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: GLSEN.
Mallon, G. P., & DeCrescenzo, T. (2006). Transgender children and youth: A child welfare practice perspective. Journal of Homosexuality, 42(1), 215–241.
McKinney, J. (2005). On the margins: A study of the experiences of transgender college students. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education, 3(1), 63–76. CrossRef
O’Shaughnessy, M., Russell, S., Heck, K., Calhoun, C., & Laub, C. (2004). Safe place to learn: Consequences of harassment based on actual or perceived sexual orientation and gender non-conformity and steps for making schools safer. San Francisco, CA: California Safe Schools Coalition.
Quinn, T. L. (2002). Sexual orientation and gender identity: An administrative approach to diversity. Child Welfare Journal, 81(6), 913–928.
Russell, S. T., & McGuire, J. K. (2008). The school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students. In M. Shinn & H. Yoshikawa (Eds.), Toward positive youth development: Transforming schools and community programs (pp. 133–149). New York: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Russell, S. T., McGuire, J. K., Lee, S. A., & Larriva, J. C. (2008). Adolescent perceptions of school safety for students with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender parents. Journal of LGBT Youth, 5, 11–27. CrossRef
Ryan, C., & Rivers, I. (2003). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: Victimization and its correlates in the USA and UK. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 5(2), 103–119. CrossRef
Sausa, L. A. (2005). Translating research into practice: Trans youth recommendations for improving school systems. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education, 3, 15–28. CrossRef
- School Climate for Transgender Youth: A Mixed Method Investigation of Student Experiences and School Responses
Jenifer K. McGuire
Charles R. Anderson
Russell B. Toomey
Stephen T. Russell
- Springer US