Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Peer victimization is a well-known national and international problem, contributing to a range of emotional, social, and behavioral consequences. Using structural equation modeling, the authors tested a theoretical model suggesting that psychological distress and student engagement mediate the association between the experience of victimization and concurrent academic achievement. Participants were 469 (46.4 % male, 53.6 % female) 6th to 8th grade students, from randomly selected classrooms in 11 middle schools in a southeastern school district. Structural equation models of the hypothesized effects demonstrated adequate fit to the data, with both symptoms of psychological distress and engagement mediating the relationship between victimization and academic achievement. In general, the results suggest that victimization predicts diminished academic achievement by way of psychological distress and poorer engagement in classroom and academic tasks. However, the direct relationship between victimization and measures of achievement lacked significance across many correlational and path analyses conducted. These findings have implications for researchers and practitioners in understanding how psychological distress and student engagement are associated with the academic performance of students who experience peer victimization.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369–386. CrossRef
Bagozzi, R. P., & Heatherington, T. F. (1994). A general approach to representing multifaceted personality constructs: Application to self-esteem. Structural Equation Modeling, 1(1), 35–67. CrossRef
Benbenishty, R., & Astor, R. A. (2005). School violence in context. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Berger, K. S. (2007). Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten? Developmental Review, 27, 90–126. CrossRef
Betts, J. E., Appleton, J., Reschly, A. L., Christenson, S. L., & Huebner, E. S. (2010). A study of the factorial invariance of the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI): Results from middle and high school students. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), 84–93. CrossRef
Brunner, T. M., & Spielberger, C. D. (2009). The state trait anger expression inventory for children and adolescents (STAXI-C/A). Psychological Assessment Resources: Sarasota, Florida.
Buhs, E. S., Ladd, G. W., & Herald, S. L. (2006). Peer exclusion and victimization: Processes that mediate the relation between peer group rejection and children’s classroom engagement and achievement? Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 1–13. CrossRef
Carlisle, N., & Rofes, E. (2007). School bullying: Do adult survivors perceive long-term effects? Traumatology, 13(1), 16–26. CrossRef
Castaneda, A., McCandless, B. R., & Palermo, D. S. (1956). The children’s form of the manifest anxiety scale. Child Development, 27, 317–326. CrossRef
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51(Suppl.), SS-4.
Cowen, E. L., Dorr, D., Clarfield, S. P., Kreling, B., McWilliams, S. A., Pokracki, F., et al. (1973). The AML: A quick screening device for early identification of school maladaptation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 1, 12–35. CrossRef
Craig, W. M. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(1), 123–130. CrossRef
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 74–101. CrossRef
Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1996). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722. CrossRef
deBruyn, E. H. (2005). Role strain. Engagement, and academic achievement in early adolescence. Educational Studies, 31(1), 15–27.
Deffenbacher, J. L. (1992). Trait anger: Theory, findings, and implications. In C. D. Spielberger & J. N. Butcher (Eds.), Advances in personality assessment (Vol. 9, pp. 177–201). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Dulums, C. N., Theriot, M. T., Sowers, K. M., & Blackburn, J. A. (2004). Student reports of peer bullying in a rural school. Stress Trauma, and Crisis: An International Journal, 7(1), 1–16. CrossRef
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., & Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation to succeed. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3 (3rd ed., pp. 1017–1096). New York: Wiley.
Florida Department of Education (2002). Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment. http://fcat.fldoe.org/fcat/. Retrieved on August 22, 2011.
Fredericks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109. CrossRef
Gumora, G., & Arsenio, W. F. (2002). Emotionality, emotional regulation, and school performance in middle school children. Journal of School Psychology, 40(5), 395–413. CrossRef
Haynie, D. L., Nansel, T., Eitel, P., Crump, A. D., Saylor, K., Yu, K., et al. (2001). Bullies, victims, and bully/victims: Distinct groups of at-risk youth. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21(1), 29–49. CrossRef
Jimerson, S. R., Campos, E., & Greif, J. L. (2003). Toward an understanding of definitions and measures of school engagement and related terms. The California School Psychologist, 8, 7–27.
Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (2004). Interactive Lisrel 8.7. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.
Juvonen, J., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2000). Peer harassment, psychological adjustment, and school functioning in early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 349–359. CrossRef
Juvonen, J., Wang, Y., & Espinoza, G. (2011). Bullying experiences and compromised academic performance across middle school grades. Journal of Early Adolescence, 31(1), 152–173. CrossRef
Kasen, S., Berenson, K., Cohen, P., & Johnson, J. G. (2004). The effects of school climate on changes in aggressive and other behaviors related to bullying. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention (pp. 187–210). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in student engagement and learning in the classroom. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 19(2), 119–137. CrossRef
Macmillian, R., & Hagan, J. (2004). Violence in the transition to adulthood: Adolescent victimization, education, and socioeconomic attainment in later life. Journal of Research of Adolescence, 14, 127–158. CrossRef
McLeod, J. D., & Fettes, D. L. (2007). Trajectories of failure: The educational careers of children with mental health problems. American Journal of Sociology, 113(3), 653–701. CrossRef
Nakamoto, J., & Schwartz, D. (2010). Is peer victimization associated with achievement? Social Development, 19(2), 221–242. CrossRef
Olweus, D. (1991). Victimization among school children. In R. Baenniger (Ed.), Targets of violence and aggression (pp. 45–102). Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. CrossRef
Olweus, D. (1993). Victimization by peers: Antecedents and long-term outcomes. In K. H. Rubin & J. B. Asendorpf (Eds.), Social withdrawal, inhibition, and shyness in childhood (pp. 315–341). Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Olweus, D. (1996). The revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Bergen, Norway: Research Center for Health Promotion (HEMIL), University of Bergen, N-5015 Bergen, Norway.
Olweus, D. (2005). A useful evaluation design, and effects of the Olweus bullying prevention program. Psychology, Crime, & Law, 11(4), 389–402. CrossRef
Radloff, L. S. (1977). A CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef
Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2000). A first course in structural equation modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Robers, S., Zhang, J., & Truman, J. (2012). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2011 (NCES 2012-002/NCJ 236021). National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC.
Roeser, R. W., Strobel, K. R., & Quihuis, G. (2002). Studying early adolescents’ academic motivation, social-emotional functioning, and engagement in learning: Variable- and person-centered approaches. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 15(4), 345–368. CrossRef
Roeser, R. W., van der Wolf, K., & Strobel, K. R. (2001). On the relation between social-emotional and school functioning during early adolescence: Preliminary findings from Dutch and American samples. Journal of School Psychology, 39(2), 111–139. CrossRef
Safe Community-Safe School Project (2002). The middle school/high school survey revised. The Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Salmivalli, C., Karna, A., & Poskiparta, E. (2011). Counteracting bullying in Finland: The KiVa program and its effects on different forms of being bullied. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(5), 405–411. CrossRef
Santa Lucia, R. C., & Gesten E. L. (2000). Adjustment across the middle school transition: Gender and race considerations. Poster presentation at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington D.C.
Schwartz, D., & Gorman, A. H. (2003). Community violence exposure and children’s academic functioning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 163–173. CrossRef
Schwartz, D., Gorman, A. H., Nakamoto, J., & Toblin, R. L. (2005). Victimization in the peer group and children’s academic functioning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 425–435. CrossRef
Sideridis, G. D. (2005). Goal orientation, academic achievement, and depression: Evidence in favor of a revised goal theory framework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 366–375. CrossRef
Spielberger, C. D. (1973). Preliminary test manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory for children. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
Totura, C. M. W., Green, A., Karver, M. S., & Gesten, E. L. (2009a). Multiple informants in the assessment of psychological, behavioral, and academic correlates of bullying and victimization. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 193–211. CrossRef
Totura, C. M. W., & MacKinnon-Lewis, C. (2011). Bullying in middle school: What does it look like, why does it happen, and who does it hurt? In M. Paludi (Ed.), The psychology of teen violence and victimization (vol. 1, pp. 105–125). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Totura, C. M. W., MacKinnon-Lewis, C., Gesten, E. L., Gadd, R., Divine, K. P., Dunham, S., et al. (2009b). Bullying and victimization among boys and girls in middle school: The influence of perceived family and school contexts. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 29(4), 571–609. CrossRef
Verkuyten, M., & Thijs, J. (2002). School satisfaction of elementary school children: The role of performance, peer relations, ethnicity, and gender. Social Indicators Research, 59, 203–228. CrossRef
Vossekuil, B., Fein, R. A., Reddy, M., Borum, R., & Modezeleski, W. (2002). The final report and findings of the safe school initiative: Implications for the prevention of school attacks in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education.
Weissman, M. M., Orvaschel, H., & Padian, N. (1980). Children’s symptom and social functioning self-report scales: Comparison of mothers’ and children’s reports. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders, 168(12), 736–740. CrossRef
Wentzel, K. R. (1993). Motivation and achievement in early adolescence: The role of multiple classroom goals. Journal of Early Adolescence, 13, 4–20. CrossRef
Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 202–209. CrossRef
Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D., & Summers, G. (1977). Assessing reliability and stability in panel models. In D. R. Heise (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 84–136). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Woods, S., & Wolke, D. (2004). Direct and relational bullying among primary children and academic achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 135–155. CrossRef
Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 197–206. CrossRef
- Psychological Distress and Student Engagement as Mediators of the Relationship between Peer Victimization and Achievement in Middle School Youth
Christine M. Wienke Totura
Marc S. Karver
Ellis L. Gesten
- Springer US