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23-04-2016 | Original Article | Uitgave 5/2016

Cognitive Therapy and Research 5/2016

Preliminary Validation of Subjective Anchor Scales for Worry and Rumination

Cognitive Therapy and Research > Uitgave 5/2016
George A. Wichelns, Megan E. Renna, Douglas S. Mennin


This research is a preliminary validation of two single-item visual analogue scales. The worry visual analogue scale (WVAS) and the rumination visual analogue scale (RVAS) are self-report measures developed to track state changes in worry and rumination. Each of these scales uses an idiographic anchor sheet, enabling each participant to quantify their personal scale of worry or rumination. We compared ratings on the WVAS and RVAS with self-report measures of trait worry and rumination as well as other constructs administered concurrently in two separate studies. In study 1 we compared results within an unselected undergraduate sample. In study 2 we compared results within a community-based sample of individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), individuals with GAD comorbid with unipolar depressive disorders, and healthy controls. Results from both studies indicate the WVAS is a reliable state-level measure of worry with acceptable discriminant and convergent validity. Results for the RVAS showed similar reliability and convergent validity but lacked as much discriminant validity. This difference is possibly due to all experimental groups having comorbid anxiety, which is associated more with worry than rumination. Regression analyses indicate the WVAS predicts trait-level anxiety measures more strongly than measures of depression and beyond the predictive ability of the RVAS. The RVAS predicts measures of depression more strongly than it does measures of anxiety but is not consistently a stronger predictor of depression than the WVAS. These findings suggest worry and rumination are distinct regulatory constructs. In study 2, participants with GAD, and GAD comorbid with unipolar depressive disorders, scored significantly higher than healthy controls in worry and rumination. The internal reliability of the measures is reported.

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