Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Nearly 2.5 million service members have served on a deployment with a child at home since 2001. While deployment and reintegration (i.e., when the service member returns home) can negatively impact parenting practices, mindfulness strategies offer a new approach for coping with the stress and uncertainty associated with the deployment cycle. The objective of this paper is to further expand professionals’ understanding of how mindfulness can assist military parents. This paper explores the link between mindfulness practices and positive parenting outcomes, and uses the military reintegration period as a context for suggestions as to how professionals can incorporate mindfulness in their work with military families.
This comprehensive literature review outlines the research supporting the effectiveness of mindfulness techniques as they apply to parenting.
This literature review offered key practices of mindful parenting (i.e., listening with full attention, nonjudgmental acceptance of self and child, compassion for self and others, self-regulation in the parenting relationship, and emotional awareness of self and child). This information was then applied within the context of three challenges military parents’ encounter during reintegration: renegotiating family roles and responsibilities, reconnecting with children, and managing changes in mental health.
Military families live both on and off bases throughout the USA and internationally. It is critical that those professionals who work with these families understand the unique contexts that these families encounter and continue to incorporate new tools and resources (e.g., mindfulness) that best serve each of these families.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Adams, C. E., Cano, M. A., Heppner, W. L., Stewart, D. W., Correa-Fernández, V., Vidrine, J. I., … Wetter, D. W. (2015). Testing a moderated mediation model of mindfulness, psychosocial stress, and alcohol use among African American smokers. Mindfulness, 6(2), 315–325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-013-0263-1.
Allen, E. S., Rhoades, G. K., Stanley, S. M., & Markman, H. J. (2011). On the home front: stress for recently deployed army couples. Family Process, 50(2), 235–247. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2011.01357.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Arch, J. J., Ayers, C. R., Baker, A., Almklov, E., Dean, D. J., & Craske, M. G. (2013). Randomized clinical trial of adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(4), 185–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2013.01.003. CrossRefPubMed
Beng, T. S., Chin, L. E., Guan, N. C., Yee, A., Wu, C., Jane, L. E., & Meng, C. B. C. (2015). Mindfulness-based supportive therapy (MBST): Proposing a palliative psychotherapy from a conceptual perspective to address suffering in palliative care. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 32(2), 144–160. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049909113508640. CrossRefPubMed
Bishop, S. R. (2002). What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosomatic Medicine, 64(1), 71–83. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-200201000-00010. CrossRefPubMed
Block-Lerner, J., Adair, C., Plumb, J. C., Rhatigan, D. L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2007). The case for mindfulness-based approaches in the cultivation of empathy: Does nonjudgmental, present-moment awareness increase capacity for perspective-taking and empathic concern? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 501–516. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00034.x. CrossRefPubMed
Bögels, S. M., Hellemans, J., van Deursen, S., Römer, M., & van der Meulen, R. (2013). Mindful parenting in mental health care: Effects on parental and child psychopathology, parental stress, parenting, coparenting, and marital functioning. Mindfulness, 5(5), 536–552. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-013-0209-7. CrossRef
Bommarito, R. K., Sherman, M. D., Rudi, J. H., Mikal, J. P., & Borden, L. M. (2017). Challenges facing military spouses during postdeployment reintegration: a review of the literature and current supports. Military Behavioral Health, 5(1), 51–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/21635781.2016.1243494. CrossRef
Bonanno, G. A., Mancini, A. D., Horton, J. L., Powell, T. M., LeardMann, C. A., Boyko, E. J., … Smith, T. C. (2012). Trajectories of trauma symptoms and resilience in deployed US military service members: Prospective cohort study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(4), 317–323. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.111.096552.
Chandra, A. (2016). Parenting school-age children and adolescents through military deployments. In A. H. Gewirtz & A. M. Youssef (Eds.), Parenting and children’s resilience in military families (pp. 27–45). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Chandra, A., Lara-Cinisomo, S., Jaycox, L. H., Tanielian, T., Han, B., Burns, R. M., & Ruder, T. (2011). Views from the homefront: The experiences of youth and spouses from military families. Santa Monica, CA. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR913.html.
Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L. G., Greenberg, M. T., & Nix, R. L. (2010). Changing parent’s mindfulness, child management skills and relationship quality with their youth: results from a randomized pilot intervention trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 203–217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-009-9304-8. CrossRefPubMed
Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L. G., Nix, R. L., Greenberg, M. T., Gayles, J. G., Bamberger, K. T., … Demi, M. A. (2015). Integrating mindfulness with parent training: Effects of the mindfulness-enhanced strengthening families program. Developmental Psychology, 51(1), 26–35. doi https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1474.Replication.
Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. (1994). Family stress and adaptation: reviewing the evidence. In R. D. Conger & G. H. Elder (Eds.), Families in troubled times: adapting to change in rural America (pp. 255–268). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Crowder, R. (2016). Mindfulness based feminist therapy: The intermingling edges of self-compassion and social justice. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 35(1–2), 24–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2015.1080605. CrossRef
Da Paz, N. S., & Wallander, J. L. (2017). Interventions that target improvements in mental health for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A narrative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 51(2017), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.10.006. CrossRefPubMed
Demers, A. (2011). When veterans return: The role of community in reintegration. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 16(2), 160–179. CrossRef
Dimidjian, S., Goodman, S. H., Felder, J. N., Gallop, R., Brown, A. P., & Beck, A. (2016). Staying well during pregnancy and the postpartum: a pilot randomized trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(2), 134–145. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000068. CrossRefPubMed
Drummet, A., Coleman, M., & Cable, S. (2003). Military families under stress: Implications for family life education. Family Relations, 52(3), 279–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2003.00279.x. CrossRef
Eisen, S. V., Schultz, M. R., Vogt, D., Glickman, M. E., Elwy, A. R., Drainoni, M. L., et al. (2012). Mental and physical health status and alcohol and drug use following return from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. American Journal of Public Health, 102(S1), 66–73. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300609. CrossRef
Felder, J. N., Segal, Z., Beck, A., Sherwood, N. E., Goodman, S. H., Boggs, J., … Dimidjian, S. (2017). An open trial of web-based mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for perinatal women at risk for depressive relapse. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 24(1), 26–37. doi https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2016.02.002.
Galla, B. M., O’Reilly, G. A., Kitil, M. J., Smalley, S. L., & Black, D. S. (2015). Community-based mindfulness program for disease prevention and health promotion: Targeting stress reduction. American Journal of Health Promotion, 30(1), 36–41. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.131107-QUAN-567. CrossRefPubMed
Gewirtz, A. H., Polusny, M. A., DeGarmo, D. S., Khaylis, A., & Erbes, C. R. (2010). Posttraumatic stress symptoms among National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq: Associations with parenting behaviors and couple adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Cinical Psychology, 78(5), 599–610. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020571. CrossRef
Goodman, J. H., Guarino, A., Chenausky, K., Klein, L., Prager, J., Petersen, R., … Freeman, M. (2014). CALM pregnancy: Results of a pilot study of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for perinatal anxiety. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 17(5), 373–387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-013-0402-7.
Hayes, S. A., & Watson, S. L. (2013). The impact of parenting stress: A meta-analysis of studies comparing the experience of parenting stress in parents of children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(3), 629–642. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1604-y. CrossRefPubMed
Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(1), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006. CrossRefPubMed
Hayes, S. C., Levin, M. E., Plumb-Vilardaga, J., Villatte, J. L., & Pistorello, J. (2013). Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: Examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy. Behavior Therapy, 44(2), 180–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2009.08.002. CrossRefPubMed
Huebner, A. J., Mancini, J. A., Wilcox, R. M., Grass, S. R., & Grass, G. A. (2007). Parental deployment and youth in military families: Exploring uncertainty and ambiguous loss. Family Relations, 56(2), 112–122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2007.00445.x. CrossRef
Jee, S. H., Couderc, J.-P., Swanson, D., Gallegos, A., Hilliard, C., Blumkin, A., … Heinert, S. (2015). A pilot randomized trial teaching mindfulness-based stress reduction to traumatized youth in foster care. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 21(3), 201–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2015.06.007.
Jones, L., Hastings, R. P., Totsika, V., Keane, L., & Rhule, N. (2014). Child behavior problems and parental well-being in families of children with autism: The mediating role of mindfulness and acceptance. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 119(2), 171–185. https://doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-119.2.171. CrossRefPubMed
Kabat-Zinn, M., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (1997). Everyday blessings: the inner work of mindful parenting. New York: Hyperion.
Kaplow, J. B., Layne, C. M., Saltzman, W. R., Cozza, S. J., & Pynoos, R. S. (2013). Using multidimensional grief theory to explore the effects of deployment, reintegration, and death on military youth and families. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 16(3), 322–340. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-013-0143-1. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Lara-Cinisomo, S., Chandra, A., Burns, R. M., Jaycox, L. H., Tanielian, T., Ruder, T., & Han, B. (2012). A mixed-method approach to understanding the experiences of non-deployed military caregivers. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(2), 374–384. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-011-0772-2. CrossRefPubMed
Lester, P., Peterson, K., Reeves, J., Knauss, L., Glover, D., Mogil, C., … Beardslee, W. (2010). The long war and parental combat deployment: Effects on military children and at-home spouses. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(4), 310–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypsy.2010.11.008.
Lippold, M. A., Duncan, L. G., Coatsworth, J. D., Nix, R. L., & Greenberg, M. T. (2015). Understanding how mindful parenting may be linked to mother–adolescent communication. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(9), 1663–1673. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0325-x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Louie, A. D., & Cromer, L. D. (2015). A qualitative study of the honeymoon period following military deployment among families with young children. Military Behavioral Health, 3(3), 199–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/21635781.2015.1038403. CrossRef
Lynch, T. R., Trost, W. T., Salsman, N., & Linehan, M. M. (2007). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3(1), 181–205. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.2.022305.095229. CrossRefPubMed
Matvienko-Sikar, K., Lee, L., Murphy, G., & Murphy, L. (2016). The effects of mindfulness interventions on prenatal well-being: A systematic review. Psychology & Health, 31(12), 1415–1434. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2016.1220557. CrossRef
McRae, K., Rekshan, W., Williams, L. M., Cooper, N., & Gross, J. J. (2014). Effects of antidepressant medication on emotion regulation in depressed patients: An iSPOT-D report. Journal of Affective Disorders, 159, 127–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.037. CrossRefPubMed
Milliken, C. S., Auchterlonie, J. L., & Hoge, C. W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq war. JAMA : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(18), 2141–2148. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.298.18.2141. CrossRefPubMed
Nguyen-Feng, V. N., Frazier, P. A., Greer, C. S., Meredith, L., Howard, K., & Paulsen, J. (2016). Testing the efficacy of three brief web-based interventions for reducing distress among interpersonal violence survivors. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 2(4), 439–448. https://doi.org/10.1037/tps0000099. CrossRef
Parent, J., Clifton, J., Forehand, R., Golub, A., Reid, M., & Pichler, E. R. (2014). Parental mindfulness and dyadic relationship quality in low-income cohabiting black stepfamilies: Associations with parenting experienced by adolescents. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 3(2), 67–82. https://doi.org/10.1037/cfp0000020. CrossRefPubMed
Parent, J., McKee, L. G., Rough, J. N., & Forehand, R. (2016b). The association of parent mindfulness with parenting and youth psychopathology across three developmental stages. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(1), 191–202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-9978-x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Pincus, S. H., House, R., Christenson, J., & Adler, L. E. (2001). The emotional cycle of deployment: A military family perspective. U.S Army Medical Department Journal, 8(4), 15–23.
Rosenblum, K. L., Muzik, M., Waddell, R. M., Thompson, S., Rosenberg, L., Masini, G., & Smith, K. (2015). Strong military families program: a multifamily group approach to strengthening family resilience. Zero to Three, 36(2), 8–14.
Segal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Theoretical rationale and empirical status. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition (pp. 45–65). New York: Guilford Press.
Shi, Z., & MacBeth, A. (2017). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on maternal perinatal mental health outcomes: a systematic review. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0673-y.
Steenkamp, M. M., Corry, N. H., Qian, M., Li, M., Mcmaster, H. S., Fairbank, J. A., … Marmar, C. R. (2018). Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in United States military spouses: The millennium cohort family study. Depression and Anxiety, (35), 815–829. doi https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22768.
Thomas, J. L., Wilk, J. E., Riviere, L. A., McGurk, D., Castro, C. A., & Hoge, C. W. (2010). Prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component and National Guard soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(6), 614–623. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.54. CrossRefPubMed
Tom, S. R., & Glynn, S. M. (2016). Parenting issues in military and veteran families. In C. J. B. Nathan, D. Ainspan, & W. Penk (Eds.), Handbook of psychosocial interventions for veterans and service members: a guide for the non-military mental health clinician (pp. 279–293). New York: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Vujanovic, A. A., Niles, B. L., & Abrams, J. L. (2016). Mindfulness and meditation in the conceptualization and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. In E. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & M. D. Griffiths (Eds.), Mindfulness and Buddhist-derived approaches in mental health and addiction (pp. 225–245). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Wachs, K., & Cordova, J. V. (2007). Mindful relating: Exploring mindfulness and emotion repertoires in intimate relationships. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 464–481. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00032.x. CrossRefPubMed
Wenger, J. W., O’Connell, C., & Cottrell, L. (2018). Examination of recent deployment experience across the services and components. Santa Monica, CA. doi https://doi.org/10.7249/RR1928.
- Mindfulness Strategies: Supporting Military Parents During Reintegration
Lynne M. Borden
- Springer US