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16-12-2019 | Uitgave 5/2020

Quality of Life Research 5/2020

Measurement invariance across gender and age in the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a Spanish general population

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 5/2020
Manuel Pulido-Martos, María Dolores Fernández-Sánchez, Esther Lopez-Zafra
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-019-02389-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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This study examines the adjustment of different equivalent measurement models for the factorial structures of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), which have shown a good fit to data from the general population. Furthermore, we examine measurement invariance (MI) based on gender and age.


A total of 1011 Spanish individuals (52.40% female) completed the CD-RISC.


The results indicated that the 10-item single-factor model was the only model that fit the data. Significant latent mean differences showed that the levels of resilience among women were significantly lower than those among men. Regarding age, uniform MI was confirmed, showing the homogeneity of the population.


Our exhaustive review of the extant published studies that address factor analyses and gender and age differences demonstrates that the results vary greatly. Furthermore, our model test comparison finds that the 10-item model is the best in the Spanish population. Moreover, men show higher resilience than women, while age is not a decisive variable, most likely showing that life events are more important than these demographic variables.

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