Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The purpose of the present study was to examine the independent and joint effects of child gender and informant (mother-report vs. child self-report) on children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children of mothers with a history of depression. Data were obtained from mothers with a history of major depressive disorder (N = 149) and their 9- to 15-year-old children (74 males, 75 females) to assess children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Little evidence was found that maternal depression amplified the typical gender differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms and behavioral problems. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that maternal depression may equalize the rates of symptoms in boys and girls. There was also some evidence that maternal depression may reverse typical patterns of gender differences in depressive symptoms; i.e., using normative T scores to account for expected rates of problems, boys reported more symptoms than girls. Mothers and children reported significantly different levels of problems depending on child gender. Future research should investigate the processes of risk that may lead to changes in the normative patterns of gender differences in the context of maternal depression.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M. (2006). As others see us: Clinical and research implications of cross informant correlations for psychopathology. Current Directions in Psychological Science,15, 94–98. CrossRef
Achenbach, T. M. & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for ASEBA school- age forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
Afifi, T. O., Cox, B. J., & Enns, M. W. (2009). Mental health profiles among married, never-married, and separated/divorced mothers in a nationally representative sample. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,41, 122–129. CrossRef
Carter, A. S., Garrity-Rokous, F. E., Chazan-Cohen, R., Little, C., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2001). Maternal depression and comorbidity: Predicting early parenting, attachment security, and toddler social-emotional problems and competencies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,40, 18–26. PubMedCrossRef
Crawford, T. N., Cohen, P., Midlarsky, E., & Brook, J. S. (2001). Internalizing symptoms in adolescents: Gender differences in vulnerability to parental distress and discord. Journal of Research on Adolescence,11, 95–118. CrossRef
England, M. J., & Sim, L. J. (Eds.). (2009). Depression in parents, parenting, and children: Opportunities to improve identification, treatment, and prevention. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Essex, M. J., Klein, M. H., Eunsuk, C., & Kraemer, H. C. (2003). Exposure to maternal depression and marital conflict: Gender differences in children’s later mental health symptoms. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,42, 728–737. CrossRef
Foster, C. E., Webster, M. C., Weissman, M. M., Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P. J., Rush, J. A., et al. (2008). Course and severity of maternal depression: Association with family functioning and child adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,37, 906–916. CrossRef
Garber, J., & Downs, L. E. (2011). Prevention of depression in youth: Sex differences in effects. In T. J. Strauman, P. R. Costanza, & J. Garber (Eds.), Depression in adolescent girls: Science and prevention (pp. 193–234). New York: Guilford Press.
Jacob, T., & Johnson, S. L. (1997). Parent-child interaction among depressed fathers and mothers: Impact on child functioning. Journal of Family Psychology,11, 391–409. CrossRef
Landman-Peeters, K. M. C., Ormel, J., Van Sonderen, E. L. P., Den Boer, J. A., Minderaa, R. B., & Hartman, C. A. (2008). Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents: Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent. Depression and Anxiety,25, 653–660. PubMedCrossRef
Rescorla, L., Achenbach, T., Ivanova, M. Y., Levent, D., Almqvist, F., Bilenberg, N., et al. (2007a). Behavioral and emotional problems reported by parents of children ages 6 to 16 in 31 societies. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders,15, 130–142. CrossRef
Sheeber, L., Davis, B., & Hops, H. (2002). Gender-specific vulnerability to depression in children of depressed mothers. In S. H. Goodman & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 253–274). Washington, DC: APA. CrossRef
- Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Sons and Daughters of Mothers with a History of Depression
Kelly H. Watson
Bruce E. Compas
- Springer US