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13-01-2023 | Original Article

Goal-Directed Learning Deficits in Patients with OCD: A Bayesian Analysis

Auteurs: Nur Hani Zainal, Joan A. Camprodon, Jennifer L. Greenberg, Aura M. Hurtado, Joshua E. Curtiss, Rebecca Matilde Berger-Gutierrez, Claire M. Gillan, Sabine Wilhelm

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 2/2023

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Abstract

Introduction

Dual system learning theories posit an overreliance characterizes obsessive–compulsive disorder on habitual decision-making at the expense of goal-directed learning. However, most studies on this topic used frequentist statistics and did not evaluate the discriminant validity of goal-directed learning indices.

Methods

We recruited 55 OCD patients, used Bayesian statistics to examine goal-directed learning in OCD, and tested whether goal-directed learning indices showed discriminant validity. Patients completed self-reports, a two-stage reinforcement learning task, executive functioning (EF), and related tests (Rey Complex Figure, Wisconsin Card Sorting, Stroop tests).

Results

Analyses showed that goal-directed learning deficits were related to compulsions and self-reported OCD severity, but not obsessions, OCD-related beliefs, trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, or depression. Moreover, increased compulsivity and self-reported OCD (vs. all other dimensions examined) were linked to faster responses. Evidence for discriminant validity was found. Goal-directed learning coefficients were unrelated to set-shifting, inhibitory control, and visuospatial memory. Compulsivity was unrelated to memory and set-shifting but associated with poorer inhibition.

Conclusions

Findings highlight the importance of conceptualizing psychopathology dimensionally, such as the relevance of imbalanced habitual vs. goal-directed behavior in OCD. Results also underscore the importance of examining unique associations of goal-directed behaviors in OCD with clinical/syndromal measures (compulsions vs. obsessions).
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1
Due to space constraints, we offer details of the psychometric properties of the tests herein in Appendix A of the online supplementary materials (OSM).
 
2
Appendix E offers details on the interpretation of Bayes Factor (BF10) values. Appendix F provides information on the impact of multiple testing of non-independent inter-related tests from a Bayesian perspective.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Goal-Directed Learning Deficits in Patients with OCD: A Bayesian Analysis
Auteurs
Nur Hani Zainal
Joan A. Camprodon
Jennifer L. Greenberg
Aura M. Hurtado
Joshua E. Curtiss
Rebecca Matilde Berger-Gutierrez
Claire M. Gillan
Sabine Wilhelm
Publicatiedatum
13-01-2023
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 2/2023
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-022-10348-3

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