Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The first author gratefully acknowledges support for the present project by the Fetzer Institute, grant # 2254.01 and the General Clinical Research Center at Virginia Commonwealth University, NIH 5M01 RR000065–410535. For the second author, this manuscript contributes to an interdisciplinary project on The Pursuit of Happiness established by the Center for the Study of Law and Religion at Emory University and the John Templeton Foundation.
The extant data linking forgiveness to health and well-being point to the role of emotional forgiveness, particularly when it becomes a pattern in dispositional forgivingness. Both are important antagonists to the negative affect of unforgiveness and agonists for positive affect. One key distinction emerging in the literature is between decisional and emotional forgiveness. Decisional forgiveness is a behavioral intention to resist an unforgiving stance and to respond differently toward a transgressor. Emotional forgiveness is the replacement of negative unforgiving emotions with positive other-oriented emotions. Emotional forgiveness involves psychophysiological changes, and it has more direct health and well-being consequences. While some benefits of forgiveness and forgivingness emerge merely because they reduce unforgiveness, some benefits appear to be more forgiveness specific. We review research on peripheral and central nervous system correlates of forgiveness, as well as existing interventions to promote forgiveness within divergent health settings. Finally, we propose a research agenda.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Baumeister, R. F., Exline, J. J., & Sommer, K. L. (1998). The victim role, grudge theory, and two dimensions of forgiveness. In E. L. Worthington Jr. (Ed.), Dimensions of forgiveness: Psychological research & theological perspectives (pp. 79–104). Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press.
Bennett, M. L. (1998). A study of the relationship of prayer between family caregiver and cancer patient in easing caregiver burden. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 59(1-B), 169.
Casey, K. L., Svensson, P., Morrow, T. J., Raz, J., Jone, C., & Minoshima, S. (2000). Selective opiate modulation of nociceptive processing in the human brain. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84, 525–533. PubMed
Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Farrow, T. F. D., & Woodruff, P. W. R. (2005). Neuroimaging of forgivability. In E. L. Worthington Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of forgiveness (pp. 259–272). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Farrow, T. F. D., Zheng, Y., Wilkinson, I. D., Spence, S. A., Deakin, J. F. W., Tarrier, N., Griffiths, P. D., & Woodruff, P. W. R. (2001). Investigating the functional anatomy of empathy and forgiveness. Neuroreport: An International Journal for the Rapid Communication of Research in Neuroscience, 12, 2433–2438.
Fincham, F. D., Hall, J. H., & Beach, S. R. H. (2005). Til lack of forgiveness doth us part: Forgiveness and marriage. In E. L. Worthington Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of forgiveness (pp. 207–225). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions?. Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319. CrossRef
Friedman, M., Thoresen, C. E., Gill, J. J., Ulmer, D., Powell, L. H., Price, V. A., Brown, B., Thompson, L., Rabin, D. D., Breall, W. S., Bourg, E., Levy, R., & Dixon, T. (1986). Alterations of Type A behavior and its effects on cardiac recurrent in post-myocardial infraction patients: Summary results of the coronary prevention recurrence project. American Heart Journal, 112, 653–665. PubMedCrossRef
Gerber, L. E. (1990). Transformations of self-understanding in surgeons whose medical treatment efforts were not successful. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 44, 75–84. PubMed
Gray, J. A. (1994). Personality dimensions and emotion systems. In P. Ekman & R. J. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions (pp. 329–331). New York: Oxford University Press.
Hall, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (2005). Self-forgiveness: The stepchild of forgiveness research. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 621–637.
Hansen, M. J. (2002). Forgiveness as an educational intervention goal for persons at the end of life. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63(1224), 4A.
Harmon-Jones, E., Sigelman, J. D., Bohlig, A., & Harmon-Jones, C. (2003). Anger, coping, and frontal cortical activity: The effect of coping potential on anger-induced left frontal activity. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 1–24. CrossRef
Harris, A. H. S., & Thoresen, C. E. (2005). Forgiveness, unforgiveness, health, and disease. In E. L. Worthington Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of forgiveness (pp. 321–333). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Harris, A. H. S., & Thoresen, C. E. (2006). Extending the influence of positive psychology interventions into health care settings: Lessons from self-efficacy and forgiveness. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 27–36. CrossRef
Huang, S-T. T., & Enright, R. D. (2000). Forgiveness and anger-related emotions in Taiwan: Implications for therapy. Psychotherapy, 37, 71–79.
Koenig, H. (2007). Altruistic love and physical health. In S. G. Post (Ed.), Altruism and health: Perspectives from empirical research (pp. 422–441). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lawler-Row, K. A., & Piferi, R. L. (2006). The forgiving personality: Describing a life well lived? Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1009–1020. CrossRef
Marques, A. H., & Sternberg, E. M. (2007). The biology of positive emotions and health. In S. G. Post (Ed.), Altruism and health: Perspectives from empirical research (pp. 149–188). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mauldin, G. R., & Anderson, W. T. (1998). Forgiveness as an intervention in contextual family therapy: Two case examples. TCA Journal, 26, 123–132.
McCullough, M. E., Pargament K. I., & Thoresen C. E. (Eds.). (2000). Forgiveness: Theory, research and practice. New York: Guilford Press.
McDaniel, S. H., Hepworth, J., & Doherty, W. J. (1999). The shared emotional themes of illness. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 10, 1–8. CrossRef
McEwen, B. S. (2002). The end of stress as we know it. Washington D.C.: Joseph Henry Press.
Mullet, E., Neto, F., & Riviere, S. (2005). Personality and its effects on resentment, revenge, and forgiveness and on self-forgiveness. In E. L. Worthington Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of forgiveness (pp. 159–182). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Park, C. L., & Folkman, S. (1997). Meaning in the context of stress and coping. Review of General Psychology, 1, 115–144. CrossRef
Phillips, C. F. (1999). The lived experience of spirituality and healing among persons with life-threatening cancer: “Making it real. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(4370), 12A.
Phillips, L. J., & Osborne, J. W. (1989). Cancer patients’ experiences of forgiveness therapy. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 23, 236–251.
Pietrini P., & Guazzelli M. (1997). Life events in the course of chronic diseases: A psychological myth or a psycho-neuro-biochemical loop? Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 15, 125–128. PubMed
Pietrini, P., Guazzelli, M., & Grafman J. (1998). Gender differences in brain activation during aggressive imageries. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 30(1–2), 33. CrossRef
Pietrini, P., Ricciardi, E., Gentili, C., Vanello, N., Sani, L., & Guazzelli, M. (2004). How the brain responds to hurtful events: neural activity elicited by aggressive versus forgiving behavior in humans. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 54(1–2), 26.
Seybold, K. S., Hill, P. C., Neumann, J. K., & Chi, D. S. (2001). Physiological and psychological correlates of forgiveness. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 20, 250–259.
Smith, R. S. (1989). Psychological trauma following automobile accidents: A review of literature. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 7, 5–20.
Stone, B. E. (2001). Cancer as initiation: Surviving the fire. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 62(1-B), 593.
Toussaint, L. L., & Williams, D. R. (October, 2003). Physiological correlates of forgiveness: Findings from a racially and socio-economically diverse sample of community residents. Presented at A Campaign for Forgiveness Research Conference, Atlanta, GA.
Toussaint, L. L., Williams, D. R., Musick, M. A., & Everson, S. A. (2001). Forgiveness and health: Age differences in a U.S. probability sample. Journal of Adult Development, 8, 249–257. CrossRef
Waltman, M. A. (2003). The psychological and physiological effects of forgiveness education in male patients with coronary artery disease. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63(3971), 8–B.
Witvliet, C. V. O. (2001). Forgiveness and health: Review and reflections on a matter of faith, feelings, and physiology. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 29, 212–224.
Witvliet, C. V. O., Ludwig, T. E., & Vander Laan, K. (2001). Granting forgiveness or harboring grudges: Implications for emotion, physiology, and health. Psychological Science, 12, 117–123. CrossRef
Witvliet, C. V. O., Ludwig, T. E., & Bauer, D. (2002). Please forgive me: Transgressors’ emotions and physiology during imagery of seeking forgiveness and victim responses. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 21, 219–233.
Witvliet, C. V. O., & McCullough, M. E. (2007). Forgiveness and health: A review and theoretical exploration of emotion pathways. In S.G. Post (Ed.), Altruism and health: Perspectives from empirical research (pp. 259–276). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Witvliet, C. V. O., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Root, L. M., Sato, A. F., Ludwig, T. E., & Exline, J. J. (in press). Retributive justice, restorative justice, and forgiveness: An experimental psychophysiology analysis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, in press.
Worthington, E. L. Jr. (2001). Unforgiveness, forgiveness, and reconciliation in societies. In R. G. Helmick & R. L. Petersen (Eds.), Forgiveness and reconciliation: Religion, public policy, and conflict transformation (pp. 161–182). Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press.
Worthington, E. L. Jr. (Ed.). (2005a). Handbook of forgiveness. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Worthington, E. L. Jr. (2005b). More questions about forgiveness: Research agenda for 2005–2015. In E. L. Worthington Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of forgiveness (pp. 557–574). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Worthington, E. L. Jr. (2006). Forgiveness and reconciliation: Theory and application. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Worthington, E. L. Jr., & Scherer, M. (2004). Forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping strategy that can reduce health risks and promote health resilience: Theory, review, and hypotheses. Psychology and Health, 19, 385–405. CrossRef
Worthington, E. L. Jr., Witvliet, C. V. O., Lerner, A. J., & Scherer, M. (2005). Forgiveness in medical practice and research. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing, 1, 169–176. CrossRef
- Forgiveness, Health, and Well-Being: A Review of Evidence for Emotional Versus Decisional Forgiveness, Dispositional Forgivingness, and Reduced Unforgiveness
Everett L. Worthington Jr
Charlotte Van Oyen Witvliet
Andrea J. Miller
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers