Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The current study sought to determine which of three variables—callous-unemotional (CU) traits, exposure to violence (ETV), and aggressive offending—did the best job of mediating the other two variables. This question was addressed in a sample of 1170 male delinquents from the Pathways to Desistance study using three waves of data and the comparison pathways approach to mediation. Consistent with predictions, ETV successfully mediated the CU–aggression relationship, whereas the two control pathways (ETV → CU → aggression and CU → aggression → ETV) were non-significant. These results suggest that certain variables are better suited to serving as mediators than other variables. Hence, while personality-based constructs like CU traits perform well as independent variables and behavioral measures like aggressive offending make for effective dependent variables, mediation is perhaps best served by social cognitive, affective-motivational, perceptual, and experiential variables, the latter of which is the category into which exposure to violence falls. From a theoretical standpoint, these findings suggest that exposure to violence may trigger or prime aggressive offending in individuals possessing strong CU traits. Exposure to violence may therefore serve as one mechanism with the capacity to link CU traits to later aggressive offending, with implications for both prevention and intervention.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Allison, P. D. (2012). Handling missing data by maximum likelihood. In SAS Global Forum 2012 (Paper 312–2012). Cary: SAS Institute.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. CrossRef
Andershed, H., Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Levander, S. (2002). Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: Initial test of a new assessment tool. In E. Blaauw & L. Sheridan (Eds.), Psychopaths: Current international perspectives (pp. 131–158). The Hague: Elsevier.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliff: Prentice-Hall.
Baskin-Sommers, A. R., & Baskin, D. (2016). Psychopathic traits mediate the relationship between exposure to violence and violent juvenile offending. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38, 341–349. CrossRef
Collins, L. M., Schafer, J. L., & Kam, C. M. (2001). A comparison of inclusive and restrictive strategies in modern missing data procedures. Psychological Methods, 6, 330–351.
Eitle, D., & Turner, R. J. (2002). Exposure to community violence and young adult crime: The effects of witnessing violence, traumatic victimization, and other stressful life events. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39, 214–237. CrossRef
Elwert, F., & Winship, C. (2014). Endogenous selection bias: The problem of conditioning on a collider variable. Annual Review of Sociology, 40, 31–53. CrossRef
Frick, P. J., & Dantagnan, A. L. (2005). Predicting the stability of conduct problems in children with and without callous-unemotional traits. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 469–485. CrossRef
Greenland, S. (2003). Quantifying biases in causal models: Classical confounding versus collider-stratification bias. Epidemiology, 14, 300–306. PubMed
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford.
Hindelang, M. J., Gottfredson, M. R., & Garofalo, J. (1978). Victims of personal crime: An empirical foundation for a theory of personal victimization. Cambridge: Ballinger.
Huizinga, D., Esbensen, F., & Weihar, A. (1991). Are there multiple paths to delinquency? The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 83–118. CrossRef
James, L. R., & Brett, J. M. (1984). Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 307–321. CrossRef
Kenny, D. A. (2013). Mediation: Sensitivity analysis [webinar]. Retrieved from http://davidakenny.net/webinars/Mediation/Sensitivity/Sensitivity.html.
Kimonis, E., Frick, P., Munoz, L., & Aucoin, K. (2008). Callous–unemotional traits and the emotional processing of distress cues in detained boys: Testing the moderating role of aggression, exposure to community violence, and histories of abuse. Journal of Developmental Psychopathology, 20, 569–589.
Kokkinos, C. M., & Voulgaridou, I. (2018). Relational victimization, callous-unemotional traits, and hostile attribution bias among preadolescents. Journal of School Violence, 17, 111–122. CrossRef
MacKinnon, D. P., Kisbu-Sakarya, Y., & Gottschall, A. C. (2013). Developments in mediation analysis. In T. D. Little (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of quantitative methods (Vol. 2, pp. 338–360). New York: Oxford University Press.
McMahon, R. J., Witkiewitz, K., Kotler, J. S., & the Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2010). Predictive validity of callous-unemotional traits measured in early adolescence with respect to multiple antisocial outcomes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 752–763. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Mulvey, E. P. (2012). The Pathways to desistance study: Design and methods. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL. Retrieved on 06-03-2013 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p574246_index.html.
Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. (1998–2007). Mplus user’s guide (5 th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén.
Nofziger, S., & Kurtz, D. (2005). Violent lives: A lifestyle model linking exposure to violence to juvenile violent offending. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42, 3–26. CrossRef
Osgood, D. W., Wilson, J. K., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Johnston, L. D. (1996). Routine activities and individual deviant behavior. American Sociological Review, 61, 635–655. CrossRef
Peyre, H., Leplége, A., & Coste, J. (2011). Missing data methods for dealing with missing items in quality of life questionnaires: A comparison by simulation of personal mean score, full information maximum likelihood, multiple imputation, and hot deck techniques applied to the SF-36 in the French 2003 decennial health survey. Quality of Life Research, 20, 287–300. CrossRefPubMed
Rucker, D. D., Preacher, K. J., Tormala, Z. L., & Petty, R. E. (2011). Mediation analysis in social psychology: Current practices and new recommendations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 359–371. CrossRef
Selner-Ohagan, M., Kindlon, D., Buka, S., Raudenbush, S., & Earls, F. (1998). Assessing exposure to violence in urban youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 39, 215–224. CrossRef
Sweeten, G. (2012). Scaling criminal offending. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28, 533–557. CrossRef
van Baardewijk, Y., Vermiren, R., Stegge, H., & Doreleijers, T. (2011). Self-reported psychopathic traits in children: Their stability and concurrent and prospective association with conduct problems and aggression. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 33, 236–245. CrossRef
Walters, G. D. (2016). Crime continuity and psychological inertia: Testing the cognitive mediation and additive postulates with male adjudicated delinquents. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 32, 237–252. CrossRef
Walters, G. D. (2017). Beyond dustbowl empiricism: The need for theory in recidivism prediction research and its potential realization in causal mediation analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 44, 40–58. CrossRef
Walters, G. D. (2018). P M effect size estimation for mediation analysis: A cautionary note, alternate strategy, and real data illustration. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 21, 25–33. CrossRef
Walters, G. D. (2018). Callous-unemotional traits and moral disengagement as antecedents to the peer influence effect: moderation or mediation? Journal of Crime and Justice. https://doi.org/10.1080/0735648X.2017.1284688.
Wu, A. D., & Zumbo, B. D. (2008). Understanding and using mediators and moderators. Social Indicators Research, 87, 367–392. CrossRef
Young, R., & Johnson, D. R. (2013). Methods for handling missing secondary respondent data. Journal of Marriage and Family, 75, 221–234.
- Exposure to Violence as a Mediator of the CU–Aggression Relationship: on the Importance of Establishing the Causal Direction of Variables in a Path Analysis
Glenn D. Walters
- Springer US
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505