Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Mental health functioning in American Indian youth is an understudied topic. Given the increased rates of depression and anxiety in this population, further research is needed. Using multiple group structural equation modeling, the current study illuminates the effect of ethnic identity on anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior in a group of Lumbee adolescents and a group of Caucasian, African American, and Latino/Hispanic adolescents. This study examined two possible pathways (i.e., future optimism and self-esteem) through which ethnic identity is associated with adolescent mental health. The sample (N = 4,714) is 28.53 % American Indian (Lumbee) and 51.38 % female. The study findings indicate that self-esteem significantly mediated the relationships between ethnic identity and anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups (i.e., the total sample). Future optimism significantly mediated the relationship between ethnic identity and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups and was a significant mediator between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms for American Indian youth only. Fostering ethnic identity in all youth serves to enhance mental health functioning, but is especially important for American Indian youth due to the collective nature of their culture.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families.
Beals, J., Piasecki, J., Nelson, S., Jones, M., Keane, E., Dauphinais, P., et al. (1997). Psychiatric disorder among American Indian adolescents: Prevalence in Northern Plains youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1252–1259. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199709000-00018. PubMedCrossRef
Bernal, M. E., & Knight, G. P. (1993). Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Bowen, N., & Guo, S. (2012). Structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Bowen, G. L., & Richman, J. M. (2008). The school success profile. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.
Bowen, G. L., Rose, R. A., & Bowen, N. K. (2005). The reliability and validity of the school success profile. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris.
Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural equation modeling with MPlus. New York, NY: Routledge.
Campbell, C. D., & Evans-Campbell, T. (2011). Historical trauma and Native American child development and mental health: An overview. In M. Sarche, P. Spicer, P. Farrell, H. Fitzgerald, & E. Hiram (Eds.), American Indian and Alaska Native children and mental health: Development, context prevention, and treatment (pp. 1–26). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). 1991–2011 High school youth risk behavior survey data. Retrieved from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline/App/Default.aspx?SID=HS. Last Accessed July 19, 2013.
Derdikman-Eiron, R., Indredavik, M. S., Bratberg, G. H., Taraldsen, G., Bakken, I. J., & Colton, M. (2011). Gender differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem, and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: Findings from the Nord-Trøndelag health study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 52, 261–267. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2010.00859.x. PubMedCrossRef
Dial, A., & Eliades, D. K. (1975). The only land I know: A history of the Lumbee Indians. San Francisco: Indian Historian Press.
Hoyle, R. H. (2012). Introduction and overview. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of structural equation modeling (pp. 3–16). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Lowery, M. M. (2010). Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow south. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Lumbee Tribe. (2012). Lumbee recognition. http://www.lumbeetribe.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=124&Itemid=2. Last Accessed July 19, 2013.
Manson, S. M., Ackerson, L. M., Dick, R. W., Baron, A. E., & Fleming, C. M. (1990). Depressive symptoms among American Indian adolescents: Psychometric characteristics of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Psychological Assessment, 2(3), 231–237. doi: 10.1037/1040-3522.214.171.124. CrossRef
Markstrom, C. A., Whitesell, N., & Galliher, R. V. (2011). Ethnic identity and mental health among American Indian and Alaska Native adolescents. In M. Sarche, P. Spicer, P. Farrell, H. Fitzgerald, & E. Hiram (Eds.), American Indian and Alaska Native children and mental health: Development, context prevention, and treatment (pp. 102–131). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
Markus, H. & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–959. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/amp/.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Pittenger, S. M. (1998). The relationship between ethnic identity, self-esteem, emotional well-being and depression among Lakota/Dakota Sioux adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: Sciences and Engineering, 60(3-B), 1311.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., & Jarvis, L. H. (2007). Ethnic identity and acculturation in Hispanic early adolescents: Mediated relationships to academic grades, prosocial behaviors, and externalizing symptoms. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 364–373. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.13.4.364. PubMedCrossRef
Smokowski, P. R., & Bacallao, M. (2010). Becoming bicultural: Risk, resilience, and Latino youth. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Stannard, D. E. (1992). American Holocaust: The conquest of the new world. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Szapocznik, J., Santisteban, D., Kurtines, W., Perez-Vidal, A., & Hervis, O. (1986). Bicultural effectiveness training (BET): An experimental test of an intervention modality for families experiencing intergenerational/intercultural conflict. Hispanic Journal Behavioral Sciences, 8, 303–330. doi: 10.1177/07399863860084001. CrossRef
Szapocznik, J., & Williams, R. A. (2000). Brief strategic family therapy: Twenty-five years of interplay among theory, research, and practice in adolescent behavior problems and drug abuse. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3, 117–134. doi: 10.1023/A:1009512719808. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Thorton, R. (1987). American Indian holocaust and survival: A population history since 1492. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
West, A. E. (2004). The experience of social anxiety in Native American adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). ProQuest UMI Dissertations, 64, 3108766.
West, A. E., & Newman, D. L. (2011). The emergence of problems in adolescence for American Indian and Alaska Native children. In M. Sarche, P. Spicer, P. Farrell, H. Fitzgerald, & E. Hiram (Eds.), American Indian and Alaska Native children and mental health: Development, context prevention, and treatment (pp. 132–154). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
West, S. G., Taylor, A. B., & Wu, W. (2012). Model fit and model selection in SEM. In R. A. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of structural equation modeling (pp. 209–231). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Whitbeck, L. B., Yu, M., Johnson, K. D., Hoyt, D. R., & Walls, M. L. (2008). Diagnostic prevalence rates from early to mid-adolescence among indigenous adolescents: First results from a longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 890–900. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181799609. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Whitesell, N. R., Mitchell, C. M., Kaufman, C. E., Spicer, P., & Voices of Indian Teens Project Team. (2006). Developmental trajectories of personal and collective self-concept among American Indian adolescents. Child Development, 77, 1487–1503. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00949.x. PubMedCrossRef
- Ethnic Identity and Mental Health in American Indian Youth: Examining Mediation Pathways Through Self-esteem, and Future Optimism
Paul R. Smokowski
Caroline B. R. Evans
Katie L. Cotter
Kristina C. Webber
- Springer US