Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent’s social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compare the structural characteristics of school-based friendship networks of American Indian youth and other racial/ethnic groups. Our core sample for the descriptive analysis consists of 70,841 youth (Caucasian = 42,096; Black = 13,554; Asian = 4,758; Hispanic = 4,464; American Indian = 3,426; Other = 2,543; Female = 50 %). We find that Native American youth generally occupy similar social positions within school hierarchies compared to other minority groups. However, American Indian youth have fewer ties at the school level than Caucasian youth, including reports of fewer reciprocated friendships, a smaller number of in-school friends, and membership in less cohesive personal networks. We also focus on the detrimental social and physical consequences of alcohol use during adolescence and offer an extended consequences model (n = 5,841) that includes the interactive effects of race/ethnicity, age, and drinking influences on relationships with friends (Caucasian = 59 %; Black = 19 %; Asian = 7 %; Hispanic = 7 %; American Indian = 5 %; Other = 3 %; Female = 54 %). American Indian youth are no more likely than other youth to report personal drinking as being detrimental to social relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners. We address ties between our findings and criminal justice policies and practices, as well as the implications for similar network analyses involving other racial/ethnic groups.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Acock, A. (2005). Working with missing values. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1012–1028.
Akers, R. L. (2009). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Akers, R. L., & Sellers, C. (2013). Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and application. New York: Oxford University Press.
Allison, P. D. (2002). Missing data: Quantitative applications in the social sciences. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 55(1), 193–196.
Anderson, E. (1994). The code of the street. The Atlantic Monthly, 273, 80–94.
Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York: W. W. Norton.
Bachman, J. G., Wallace, J. M., O’Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., Kurth, C. L., & Neighbors, H. W. (1991). Racial/ethnic differences in smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among American high school seniors, 1976–89. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 372–377. PubMed
Baerveldt, C., Van Rossem, R., & Vermande, M. (2003). Pupils’ delinquency and their social networks: A test of some network assumptions of the ability and inability models of delinquency. Netherlands’ Journal of Social Sciences, 39(2), 107–125.
Baerveldt, C., Völker, B., & Van Rossem, R. (2008). Revisiting selection and influence: An inquiry into the friendship networks of high school students and their association with delinquency. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice/La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale, 50(5), 559–587.
Bagwell, C. L., & Schmidt, M. E. (2011). Friendships in childhood and adolescence. New York: Guilford Press.
Bearman, P., Moody, J., & Stovel, K. (1997). The add health network variable codebook. Available at: http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/codebooks/wave1. Accessed March 31, 2013.
Beauvais, F. (1998). American Indians and alcohol. Alcohol Health & Research World, 22(4), 253–259.
Bonacich, P. (1987). Power and centrality: A family of measures. American Journal of Sociology, 92(5), 1170–1182.
Brown, B. B., Bakken, J. P., Ameringer, S. W., & Mahon, S. D. (2008). A comprehensive conceptualization of peer influence process in adolescence. In M. J. Prinstein & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), Understanding peer influence in children and adolescence (pp. 17–44). New York: Guilford Press.
Caetano, R., Clark, C. L., & Tam, T. (1998). Alcohol consumption among racial/ethnic minorities. Alcohol Health and Research World, 22(4), 233–242. PubMed
Campbell, A. (2008). The morning after the night before: Affective reactions to one-night stands among mated and unmated women and men. Human Nature, 19, 157–173.
Chavez, G. F., Cordero, J. F., & Becarra, J. E. (1989). Leading major congenital malformations among minority groups in the United States, 1981–1986. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261(2), 205–209.
Cleveland, H. H., & Wiebe, R. P. (2003). The moderation of adolescent-to-peer similarity in tobacco and alcohol use by school levels of substance use. Child Development, 74(1), 279–291. PubMed
Coalition for Juvenile Justice. (2010). Disproportionate minority contact (DMC): Facts and resources. Washington, DC: Coalition for Juvenile Justice.
Coats, S., Harrington, J. T., Beaubouef, M., & Locke, H. (2012). Sex differences in relationship regret: The role of perceived mate characteristics. Evolutionary Psychology, 10, 422–442. PubMed
Coleman, A. (2013). A disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) chronology: 1988 to date. Washington, DC: OJJDP. Retrieved on 29 April 2013 at http://www.ojjdp.gov/dmc/chronology.html.
Curry, D., & Spergel, I. (1992). Gang involvement and delinquency among Hispanic and African-American adolescent males. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 29, 273–291.
DeWit, D. J., Adlaf, E. M., Offord, D. R., & Ogborne, A. C. (2000). Age at first alcohol use: A risk factor for the development of alcohol disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(5), 745–750. PubMed
Donnermeyer, J. R., Edwards, R. W., Chavez, E. L., & Beauvais, F. (2000). Involvement of American Indian youth in gangs. Free Inquiry Special Issue: Gangs, Drugs, and Violence, 28, 73–80.
Dorgan, S. B. L. (2010). The tragedy of Native American youth suicide. Psychological Services, 7(3), 213–218.
Elliott, D., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Elliott, D., & Menard, S. (1996). Delinquent friends and delinquency behavior: Temporal and developmental patterns. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 28–67). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York: The Guildford Press.
Ennett, S., Bauman, K., Hussong, A., Faris, R., Foshee, V., Cai, L., et al. (2006). The peer context of adolescent substance use: Findings from social network analysis. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 159–186.
Esbaugh, E., & Gute, G. (2008). Hookups and sexual regret among college women. The Journal of Social Psychology, 148, 77–89.
Faircloth, S. C., & Tippeconnic, J. W, I. I. I. (2010). The dropout/graduation crisis among Native American and Native Alaska students: Failure to respond places the future of Native Peoples at risk. Los Angeles: Civil Rights Project.
Farrow, J. A., & Brissing, P. (1990). Risk for DWI: A new look at gender differences in drinking and driving influences, experiences, and attitudes among new adolescent drivers. Health Education & Behavior, 17(2), 213–221.
Fisher, P. A., Bacon, J., & Storck, M. (1998). Teacher, parent, and youth report of problem behaviors among rural American Indian and Caucasian youth. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 10(3), 24–32.
Frank, M. L., & Lester, D. (2002). Self destructive behaviors in American Indian and Alaska Native high school youth. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 10(3), 24–32. PubMed
Freng, A., & Esbensen, F.-A. (2007). Race and gang affiliation: An examination of multiple marginality. Justice Quarterly, 24(4), 600–628.
Friese, B., Grube, J. W., Seninger, S., Paschall, M. J., & Moore, R. S. (2011). Drinking behavior and sources of alcohol: Differences between Native American and White youths. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72(1), 53–60. PubMed
Fujimoto, K., & Valente, T. W. (2012). Decomposing the components of friendship and friends’ influence on adolescent drinking and smoking. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 51(2), 136–143.
Goodreau, S. M., Kitts, J. A., & Morris, M. (2009). Birds of a feather, or friend of a friend? Using statistical network analysis to investigate adolescent social networks. Demography, 46(1), 103–125. PubMed
Grant, B. F., & Dawson, D. A. (1997). Age at onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: Results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Journal of Substance Abuse, 9(1), 103–110. PubMed
Grant, C. M., & Feimer, S. (2007). Street gangs in Indian Country: A clash of cultures. Journal of Gang Research, 14, 27–66.
Grossman, D. C., Milligan, B. C., & Deyo, R. A. (1991). Risk factors of suicide attempts among Navajo adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 870–874. PubMed
Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1997). Friendships and adaptation in the life course. Psychological Bulletin, 121(3), 355–370.
Hawkins, E. H., Cummins, L. H., & Marlatt, G. A. (2004). Preventing substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska native youth: Promising strategies for healthier communities. Psychological Bulletin, 130(2), 304–323. PubMed
Haynie, D. L. (2001). Delinquent peers revisited: Does network structure matter? American Journal of Sociology, 106, 1013–1057.
Haynie, D. L. (2002). Friendship networks and delinquency: The relative nature of peer delinquency. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18, 99–134.
Haynie, D. L., & Osgood, D. W. (2005). Reconsidering peers and delinquency: How do peers matter? Social Forces, 84, 1109–1130.
Haynie, D. L., & Payne, D. C. (2006). Race, friendship networks, and violent delinquency. Criminology, 44(4), 775–805.
Heavy-Runner-Rioux, A., & Hollist, D. R. (2010). Community, family, and peer influences on alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drug use among a sample of Native American youth: An analysis of predictive factors. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 9, 260–283.
Henry, K. L., McDonald, J. N., Oetting, E. R., Silk Walker, P., Walker, R. D., & Beauvais, F. (2011). Age of onset of first alcohol intoxication and subsequent alcohol use among urban American Indian adolescents. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25(1), 48. PubMed
Herman-Stahl, M., Spencer, D. L., & Duncan, J. E. (2003). The implications of cultural orientation for substance use among American Indians. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 11(1), 46–66. PubMed
Hingson, R., Heeren, T., Levenson, S., Jamanka, A., & Voas, R. (2002). Age of drinking onset, driving after drinking, and involvement in alcohol related motor-vehicle crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 34(1), 85–92. PubMed
Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Transaction publishers.
Hu, M., Davies, M., & Kandel, D. B. (2006). Epidemiology and correlates of daily smoking and nicotine dependence among young adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 96(2), 1–10.
Hussong, A. (2002). Differentiating peer contexts and risk for adolescent substance abuse. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(3), 207–220.
Jaccard, J., Blanton, H., & Dodge, T. (2005). Peer influences on risk behavior: An analysis of the effects of a close friend. Developmental Psychology, 41(1), 135–147. PubMed
Jackson, K. F., & Hodge, D. R. (2010). Native American youth and cultural sensitive interventions: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 29(3), 260–270.
Joyner, K., & Kao, G. (2000). School racial composition and adolescent racial homophily. Social Science Quarterly, 81(3), 810–825.
Kadushin, C. (2012). Understanding social networks: Theories, concepts, and findings. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kirchner, E. E., & Higgins, G. E. (2013). Self-control and racial disparities in delinquency: A structural equation modeling approach. American Journal of Criminal Justice. doi: 10.1007/s12103-013-9205-7.
Knoester, C., Haynie, D. L., & Stephens, C. M. (2006). Parenting practices and adolescents’ friendship networks. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(5), 1247–1260.
Kobus, K., & Henry, D. (2010). Interplay of network position and peer substance use in early adolescent cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30, 225–244.
Kuntsche, E., & Jordan, M. D. (2006). Adolescent alcohol and cannabis use in relation to peer and school factors. Results of multilevel analyses. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 84(2), 167–174. PubMed
Lang, S. W., Waller, P. F., & Shope, J. T. (1997). Adolescent driving: Characteristics associated with single-vehicle and injury crashes. Journal of Safety Research, 27(4), 241–257.
Lazarsfeld, P. F., & Merton, R. K. (1954). Friendship as a social process: A substantive and methodological analysis. Freedom and Control in Modern Society, 18(1), 18–66.
Lin, N. (2002). Social capital: A theory of social structure and action, Vol. 19. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1986). Family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. Crime & Justice, 7, 29–149.
Maxwell, K. A. (2002). Friends: The role of peer influence across adolescent risk behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(4), 267–277.
Mays, G. L., & Winfree, L. T, Jr. (2012). Juvenile justice. Frederick, MD: Wolters Kluwer Law and Business.
McCartney, S., Bishaw, A., & Fontenot, K. (2013). Poverty rates for selected detailed race and Hispanic groups by state and place: 2007–2013. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census.
McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 415–444.
Meropol, S. B., Moscati, R. M., Lillis, K. A., Ballow, S., & Janicke, D. M. (1995). Alcohol-related injuries among adolescents in the emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 26(2), 180–186. PubMed
Mmari, K. N., Blum, R., & Teufel-Shone, N. (2010). What increases risk and protection for delinquent behaviors among American Indian youth? Findings from three tribal communities. Youth and Society, 41(3), 382–413.
Moffitt, T. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701. PubMed
Moody, J. (2001). Race, school integration, and friendship segregation in America. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 679–716.
Moody, J., & White, D. R. (2003). Structural cohesion and embeddedness: A hierarchical concept of social groups. American Sociological Review, 68, 103–127.
Morris, C. H., Crowley, S. L., & Morris, C. (2002). A measure of traditionalism for American Indian children: Psychometric properties and factor structure. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 10(3), 33–55. PubMed
Morris, G. D., & Wood, P. B. (2010). Delinquency and non-reservation American Indians: The role of unique and general predictors of interpersonal and property offending. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 8(4), 248–265.
Morris, G. D., Wood, P. B., & Dunaway, R. G. (2006). Self-control, native traditionalism, and Native American substance use: Testing the cultural invariance of a general theory of crime. Crime and Delinquency, 52(4), 572–598.
Morris, G. D., Wood, P. B., & Dunaway, R. G. (2007). Testing the cultural invariance of parenting and self-control as predictors of American Indian delinquency. Western Criminology Review, 8(1), 32–47.
Norris, T., Vines, P. L., & Hoeffel, E. M. (2011). American Indian and Alaska Native populations: 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census.
Oetting, E. R., & Beauvais, F. (1989). Epidemiology and correlates of alcohol use among Indian adolescents living on reservations. In D.L. Spiegler, D.A. Tate, S.S. Aitken, C.M. Christian (Eds.), Alcohol use among U.S. ethnic minorities. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Research Monograph No. 18 (pp. 239–267). DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 89–1435. Rockville, MD: The Institute.
Osgood, D. W., McMorris, B. J., & Potenza, M. T. (2002). Analyzing multiple-item measures of crime and deviance I: Item response theory scaling. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 267–296.
Pavkov, T. W., Travis, L., Fox, K., Bear King, C., & Cross, T. L. (2010). Tribal youth victimization and delinquency: Analysis of Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey data. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(2), 123–134. PubMed
Payne, D. C., & Cornwell, B. (2007). Reconsidering peer influences on delinquency: Do less proximate contacts matter? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 23(2), 127–149.
Potthoff, S. J., Bearinger, L. H., Skay, C., Cassuto, N., Blum, R. W., & Resnick, M. D. (1998). Dimensions of risk behavior among American Indian youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 152(February), 157–163. PubMed
Pridemore, W. A. (2004). Review of the literature on risk and protective factors of offending among Native Americans. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 2(4), 45–63.
Pridemore, W. A. (2005). A culturally informed developmental approach to understanding risk and resiliency among Native American youth. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 3(1–2), 111–129.
Quillian, L., & Campbell, M. E. (2003). Beyond black and white: The present and future of multiracial friendship segregation. American Sociological Review, 68(4), 540–566.
Rees, C., & Pogarsky, G. (2011). One bad apple may not spoil the whole bunch: Best friends and adolescent delinquency. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 27, 197–223.
Reiter, J. P., Raghunathan, T., & Kinney, S. (2006). The importance of modeling the sampling design in multiple imputation for missing data. Survey Methodology, 32, 143–149.
Rutman, S., Park, A., Castor, M., Taualii, M., & Forquera, R. (2008). Urban American Indian and Alaska Native youth: Youth Risk Behavior Survey 1997–2003. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 12, S76–S81.
Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas: A study of rates of delinquents in relation to differential characteristics of local communities in American cities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Short, J. F. (1957). Differential association and delinquency. Social Problems, 4, 233–239.
Smokowski, P. R., David-Ferdon, C., & Stroupe, N. (2009). Acculturation and violence in minority adolescents: A review of the empirical literature. Journal of Primary Prevention, 30, 215–263. PubMed
Spear, S., Longshore, D., McCaffrey, D., & Ellickson, P. (2005). Prevalence of substance use among White and American Indian young adolescents in a Northern Plains State. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 37, 1–6. PubMed
StataCorp. (2011). Stata Statistical Software: Release 12. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.
Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott.
Szlemko, W. J., Wood, J. W., & Thurman, P. J. (2006). Native Americans and alcohol: Past, present and future. The Journal of General Psychology, 133(4), 435–451. PubMed
Theriot, M. T., & Parker, B. (2007). Native American youth gangs: Linking culture, history, and theory for improved understanding prevention and intervention. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 5, 83–97.
Valente, T. W. (2010). Social networks and health: Models, methods, and applications. New York: Oxford University Press.
Vigil, J. D. (1988). Barrio gangs. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Vigil, J. D. (2002). A rainbow of gangs: Street culture in the mega-city. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
von Hippel, P. (2007). Regression with missing Ys: An improved strategy for analyzing multiply imputed data. Sociological Methodology, 37, 87–113.
Waller, M. A., Okamoto, S. K., Miles, B. W., & Hurdle, D. E. (2003). Resiliency factors related to substance use/resistance: Perceptions of native adolescents of the Southwest. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 30(4), 79–94.
Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Weerman, F. (2011). Delinquent peers in context: A longitudinal network analysis of selection and influence effects. Criminology, 49(1), 253–286.
Weerman, F., & Smeenk, W. H. (2005). Peer similarity in delinquency for different types of friends: A comparison using two measurement methods. Criminology, 43(2), 499–524.
Wenzel, S., Hsun, T., Zhou, A., & Tucker, J. (2012). Are social network correlates of heavy drinking similar among Black homeless youth and White homeless youth? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73, 885–889. PubMed
Williams, K. D., Forgas, J. P., Von Hippel, W., & Zadro, L. (2005). The social outcast: An overview. In K. D. Williams, J. P. Forgas, & W. von Hippel (Eds.), The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying. New York: Psychology Press.
Winfree, L. T, Jr, & Abadinsky, H. (2010). Understanding crime: Essentials of criminological theory. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Winfree, L. T, Jr, Theis, H. E., & Griffiths, C. T. (1981). Drug use in rural America: A cross-cultural examination of complementary social deviance theories. Youth and Society, 12(4), 465–489.
Yabiku, S. T., Rayle, A. D., Okamoto, S. K., Marsiglia, F. F., & Kulis, S. (2007). The effect of neighborhood context on the drug use of American Indian youth of the Southwest. Journal of Ethnic Substance Abuse, 6(2), 181–204.
Young, J. T. N., & Rees, C. (2013). Social networks and delinquency in adolescence: Implications for life-course criminology. In C. Gibson & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Handbook of life-course criminology (pp. 159–182). New York: Springer.
Zimmerman, G. M., & Vásquez, B. E. (2011). Decomposing the peer effect on adolescent substance use: Mediation, nonlinearity, and differential nonlinearity. Criminology, 49(4), 1235–1273.
- The Native American Adolescent: Social Network Structure and Perceptions of Alcohol Induced Social Problems
L. Thomas Winfree Jr.
- Springer US