Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Pathways into and out of conduct problems differ by circumstances experienced since infancy. There is a research gap in understanding how these developmental patterns vary according to the timing and persistence of risk and whether there are differences across ecological domains. This study examines variations in trajectories of conduct problems between ages 3 to 14 years and associated child, family and socio-economic risk factors from ages 9 months to 14 years, drawing on the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,206, 49% female), a nationally representative longitudinal study of children born between 2000/02. Group-based modeling was used to identify four distinct trajectories of conduct problems: low (56%), persistent high (8%), childhood-limited (23%) and adolescent-onset (13%). All three problem pathways were associated with high levels of exposure to risk, particularly early socio-economic and persisting child and family risks. However, while for the persistent and adolescent-onset pathways, exposure to higher levels of family and child risks continued through adolescence, it receded for the childhood-limited trajectory. The effects of early socio-economic disadvantage persisted for those on the adolescent-onset trajectory, highlighting the importance of early markers for this later onset group. Maternal smoking in pregnancy continued to be a significant predictor for all three conduct problem groups, even up to age 14 years. The findings indicate that different influences and processes may explain diverse pathways of conduct problems. This offers insights into who and what might be targeted and when might be the most effective developmental window for intervention.
Ackerman, B. P., Schoff, K., Levinson, K., Youngstrom, E., & Izard, C. E. (1999). The relations between cluster indexes of risk and promotion and the problem behaviors of 6-and 7-year-old children from economically disadvantaged families. Developmental Psychology, 35(6), 1355–1366. CrossRef
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM). (5th Edn) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Andruff, H., Carraro, N., Thompson, A., Gaudreau, P., & Louvet, B. (2009). Latent class growth modeling: a tutorial. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 5(1), 11–24. CrossRef
Appleyard, K., Egeland, B., Dulmen, M. H., & Alan Sroufe, L. (2005). When more is not better: the role of cumulative risk in child behavior outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(3), 235–245. CrossRef
Atzaba‐Poria, N., Pike, A., & Deater‐Deckard, K. (2004). Do risk factors for problem behavior act in a cumulative manner? An examination of ethnic minority and majority children through an ecological perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(4), 707–718. CrossRef
Barker, E. D., & Maughan, B. (2009). Differentiating early-onset persistent childhood-limited conduct problem youth. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(8), 900–908. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08121770. CrossRefPubMed
Bevilacqua, L., Hale, D., Barker, E. D., & Viner, R. (2017). Conduct problems trajectories and psychosocial outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 10, 1–22.
Broidy, L. M., Nagin, D. S., Tremblay, R. E., Bates, J. E., Brame, B., & Dodge, K. A., et al. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: a six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 222 https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.199. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Bor, W., McGee, T. R., & Fagan, A. A. (2004). Early risk factors for adolescent antisocial behaviour: an Australian longitudinal study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38(5), 365–372. CrossRef
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Evans, G. W. (2000). Developmental science in the 21st century: emerging questions, theoretical models, research designs and empirical findings. Social Development, 9(1), 115–125. CrossRef
Cicchetti, D., & Aber, J. L. (1998). Contextualism and developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 10(2), 137–141. CrossRef
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2009). The past achievements and future promises of developmental psychopathology: the coming of age of a discipline. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(1-2), 16–25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01979.x. CrossRefPubMed
Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., & Martin, M. J. (2010). Socioeconomic status, family processes, and individual development. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 72(3), 685–704. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00725.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
De La Rochebrochard, E., & Joshi, H. (2013). Siblings and child development. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 4(3), 276–287.
Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1998). Multiple risk factors in the development of externalizing behavior problems: group and individual differences. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 469–493. CrossRef
Duncan, G. J., Brooks-Gunn, J., Yeung, J., & Smith, J. R. (1998). How much does childhood poverty affect the life chances of children? American Sociological Review, 63(3), 406–423. CrossRef
Emerson, E., Einfeld, S., & Stancliffe, R. J. (2011). Predictors of the persistence of conduct difficulties in children with cognitive delay. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(11), 1184–1194. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02413.x. CrossRefPubMed
Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (2000). Some benefits of dichotomization in psychiatric and criminological research. Criminal behaviour and mental health, 10(2), 100–122. CrossRef
Fairchild, G., Van Goozen, S. H., Calder, A. J., & Goodyer, I. M. (2013). Research review: evaluating and reformulating the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(9), 924–940. CrossRef
Fergusson, D. M., & Lynskey, M. T. (1996). Adolescent resiliency to family adversity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 37(3), 281–292. CrossRef
Flouri, E. (2008). Contextual risk and child psychopathology. Child Abuse and Neglect, 32(10), 913–917. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.12.008. CrossRefPubMed
Flouri, E., & Kallis, C. (2007). Adverse life events and psychopathology and prosocial behavior in late adolescence: testing the timing, specificity, accumulation, gradient, and moderation of contextual risk. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(12), 1651–1659. https://doi.org/10.1097/chi.0b013e318156a81a. CrossRefPubMed
Frick, P. J. (2012). Developmental pathways to conduct disorder: implications for future directions in research, assessment, and treatment. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41(3), 378–389. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2012.664815. CrossRefPubMed
Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Barry, C. T., Bodin, S. D., & Dane, H. E. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression, and self-report of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(4), 457–470. CrossRef
Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 38(5), 581–586. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x. CrossRefPubMed
Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(11), 1337–1345. CrossRef
Goodman, R., Ford, T., Simmons, H., Gatward, R., & Meltzer, H. (2000). Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(6), 534–539. CrossRef
Gutman, L. M., Joshi, H., Parsonage, M., & Schoon, I. (2018). Gender-specific trajectories of conduct problems from ages 3 to 11. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 7, 1–14.
Hansen, K. (2014). Millennium Cohort Study: A guide to the data sets. London: UCL Institute of Education.
Hertzman, C. (1999). Population health and human development. In D. P. Keating & C. Hertzman (Eds.), Developmental health and the wealth of nations (pp. 21–40). NY: Guilford Press.
Kessler, R. C., Andrews, G., & Colpe, et al. (2002). Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychological Medicine, 32, 959–956. CrossRef
Ketende, S. C., & Joshi, H. (2008). Technical appendix to Chapter 12 Income and poverty. In K. Hansen & H. Joshi (Eds), Millemmium Cohort Study, Third Survey: A users Guide to Initial Findings. London: Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education .
Kretschmer, T., Hickman, M., Doerner, R., Emond, A., Lewis, G., & Macleod, J., et al. (2014). Outcomes of childhood conduct problem trajectories in early adulthood: findings from the ALSPAC study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(7), 539–549. CrossRef
Laura A. Lowe (2016). Using the child behavior checklist in assessing conduct disorder: Issues of reliability and validity. Research on social work practice, 8(3), 286–301.
Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradović, J., & Riley, J. R., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41(5), 733–746. CrossRef
Meltzer, H., Gatward, R., Goodman, R., & Ford, T. (2000). Mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. London: TSO.
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course persistint antisocial behavior. A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674–701. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.100.4.674. CrossRefPubMed
Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Life-course-persistent versus adolescence-limited antisocial behavior. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: risk, disorder, and adaptation. (2nd edn, pp. 570–598). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Nagin, D. (2005). Group-Based Modeling of Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Nagin, D. S., & Odgers, C. (2010). Group-based trajectory modeling in clinical research. Annual Review Clinical Psychology, 6, 109–138. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131413. CrossRef
Odgers, C. L., Caspi, A., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., & Harrington, H., et al. (2007). Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(4), 476–484. CrossRef
Odgers, C. L., Moffitt, T. E., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., & Caspi, A. (2008). Female and male antisocial trajectories: from childhood origins to adult outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 20(02), 673–716. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000333. CrossRefPubMed
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7(2), 147–177. https://doi.org/10.1037//1082-989X.7.2.147. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Schoon, I., Sacker, A., & Bartley, M. (2003). Socio-economic adversity and psychosocial adjustment: a developmental-contextual perspective. Social Science and Medicine, 57(6), 1001–1015. doi:Pii s0277-9536(02)00475-6. CrossRef
Sentse, M., Kretschmer, T., de Haan, A., & Prinzie, P. (2017). Conduct problem trajectories between age 4 and 17 and their association with behavioral adjustment in emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(8), 1633–1642. CrossRef
Shaw, D. S. (2013). Future directions for research on the development and prevention of early conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42, 418–428. CrossRef
Trentacosta, C. J., Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. (2008). The relations among cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems during early childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(11), 1211–1219. PubMed
- Developmental Trajectories of Conduct Problems and Cumulative Risk from Early Childhood to Adolescence
Leslie Morrison Gutman
- Springer US