Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This study explores the relationships of individualistic (e.g., competition, material success) and collectivistic values (e.g., familism, respect) with risky and prosocial behavior among African-American and European-Americanyouth. While previous work has focused upon immigrant adolescents, this study expands the research exploring cultural values to other racial-ethnic groups and to a younger developmental period. This study builds upon culture as individually experienced beliefs and practices, potentially espousing multiple cultural orientations and relationships to behavior.
Data from Cohort 3 of a study of 219 urban, suburban, and rural children included African-American (42%) and European-American (58%) children, 54% female, ranging from grades 1–5 (mean age = 9). Multigroup structural equation models were tested resulting in a measurement model that fit similarly across groups (RMSEA = .05, CFI = .94).
African-American children reported higher levels of individualism, and African-American and European-American children reported espousing similar levels of collectivism. Children in higher grades were found to be more collectivistic and less individualistic. Individualistic values were related to children’s lower prosocial and higher rates of problem and delinquent behavior. Collectivistic cultural values were associated with reduced rates of problem behaviors, controlling for race-ethnicity, gender and grade.
Results provide support for the assertion that youth espouse multiple cultural orientations and that collectivistic cultural values can serve as promotive factors for children of diverse backgrounds. Practice and policy should seek to understand the role of family, school, and community socialization of multiple cultural orientations and nuanced associations with risk and resilience.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aboud, F. E. (1988). Children and prejudice. Oxford: B. Blackwell.
Alltucker, K. W., Bullis, M., Close, D., & Yovanoff, P. (2006). Different pathways to juvenile delinquency: characteristics of early and late starters in a sample of previously incarcerated youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(4), 475–488. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-006-9032-2.
Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 55(3), 303–332.
Billingsley, A. (1994). Climbing Jacob’s ladder: The enduring legacies of African-American families. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Boykin, A. W. (1986). The triple quandary and the schooling of Afro-American children. In U. Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children (pp. 57–92). Hillsdale: Earlbaum.
Brewer, M. B., & Chen, Y. R. (2007). Where (who) are collectives in collectivism? Toward conceptual clarification of individualism and collectivism. Psychological Review, 114(1), 133–151. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2220.127.116.11. PubMed
Cabrera, N. J., the SRCD Ethnic and Racial Issues Committee. (2013). Positive development of minority. Children Social Policy Report, 27(2), 1–22.
Calzada, E. J., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Yoshikawa, H. (2013). Familismo in Mexican and Dominican families from low-income, urban communities. Journal of Family Issues, 34(12), 1696–1724.
Caughy, M. O. B., Nettles, S. M., O’Campo, P. J., & Lohrfink, K. F. (2006). Neighborhood matters: racial socialization of African-American children. Child Development, 77(5), 1220–1236. PubMed
Cohen, P., & Cohen, J. (1996). Research monographs in adolescence. Life values and adolescent mental health. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2001). Cultural orientations in the United States: (Re) examining differences among ethnic groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(3), 348–364.
Constantine, M., Alleyne, V., Wallace, B., & Franklin-Jackson, D. (2006). Afrocentric cultural values: their relation to positive mental health in African-American adolescent girls. Journal of Black Psychology, 32, 141–154. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095798406286801.
Diener, E., Diener, M., & Diener, C. (1995). Factors predicting the subjective well-being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 851. PubMed
Diener, E., & Diener, M. (2009). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. In E. Diener (Ed.), Culture and Well-Being: The collected works of Ed Diener (pp. 71–91). Dordrecht: Springer.
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C., Reuman, Flanagan, C., & MacIver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: the impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48(2), 90–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.90. PubMed
Erikson, E. H. (1994). Identity: Youth and crisis (No. 7). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Eckersley, R., & Dear, K. (2002). Cultural correlates of children suicide. Social Science and Medicine, 55(11), 1891–1904. PubMed
Fuligni, A. J. (2001), Family obligation and the academic motivation of adolescents from Asian, Latin American, and European backgrounds. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.31.
Fuligni, A. J., Yip, T., & Tseng, V. (2002). The impact of family obligation on the daily activities and psychological well‐being of Chinese American adolescents. Child Development, 73(1), 302–314. PubMed
Fuligni, A. J., Tseng, V., & Lam, M. (1999). Attitudes toward family obligations among American Adolescents with Asian, Latin American, and European Backgrounds. Child Development, 70, 1030–1044. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00075.
Furr, M. (2011). Scale construction and psychometrics for social and personality psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
García-Coll, C., Lamberty, G., Jenkins, R., McAdoo, H. P., Crnic, K., Wasik, B. H., & García, H. V. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67(5), 1891–1914. PubMed
Genovese, E. D. (1976). Roll, Jordan, roll: The world the slaves made. p. 652, New York: Vintage.
Gilligan, Carol (1982). In a Different Voice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Goodman, R., Meltzer, H., & Bailey, V. (2003). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a pilot study on the validity of the self-report version. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(1-2), 173–177. PubMed
Guerra, N., & Smith, E. P. (2006). Preventing youth violence in a multicultural society. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Gutman, H. G. (1976). Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, pp. 1750–1925. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.
Gutman, L. M., & Eccles, J. S. (2007). Stage-environment fit during adolescence: trajectories of family relations and adolescent outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 522–537. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1682. PubMed
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 207–219). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Hu, L. C., Ispa, J. M., & Rudy, D. (2006). Parental control in Latino families: an integrated review of the literature. Child Development, 77, 1268–1281.
Hardaway, C., & Fuligni, A. J. (2006). Dimensions of family connectedness among adolescents with Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1246–1258.
Herskovits, M. J. (1990). The Myth of the Negro Past. Boston: Beacon Press.
Hill, R. B. (1999). The Strengths of African-American Families: Twenty-Five Years Later. Landham: University Press of America.
Hill, N. E. (2006). Disentangling ethnicity, socioeconomic status and parenting: interactions, influences and meaning. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 1(1), 114–124.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.
Hughes, D., Rodriguez, J., Smith, E. P., Johnson, D. J., Stevenson, H. C., & Spicer, P. (2006). Parents’ ethnic-racial socialization practices: a review of research and directions for future study. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 747–770. PubMed
Ispa, J. M., Fine, M. A., Halgunseth, L. C., Harper, S., Robinson, J., Boyce, L., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Brady-Smith, C. (2004). Maternal intrusiveness, maternal warmth, and mother-toddler relationship outcomes: variations across low-income ethnic and acculturation groups. Child Development, 75(6), 1613–1631. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00806.x. PubMed
Jagers, R. J. (1998). Afrocultural integrity and the social development of African-American children: some conceptual, empirical, and practical considerations. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 16(1-2), 7–34.
Kâğitçibaşi, C. (1997). Individualism and collectivism. In J. W. Berry, M. H. Segall & Ç. Kâğıtçıbaş (Eds.), Handbook of Cross-cultural Psychology: Volume 3, Social Behavior and Applications (2nd edn., pp. 1–49). Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.
Kasser, T., & Ahuvia, A. (2002). Materialistic values and well‐being in business students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(1), 137–146.
Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Sheldon, K. M. (2004). Materialistic values: their causes and consequences. In T. Kasser & A. D. Kanner (Eds.), Psychology and consumer culture: The struggle for a good life in a materialistic world (pp. 11–28). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Kim, U. E., Triandis, H. C., Kâğitçibaşi, Ç. E., Choi, S. C. E., & Yoon, G. E. (1994). Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Knight, G. P., Gonzales, N. A., Saenz, D. S., Bonds, D. D., Germán, M., Deardorff, J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2009). The Mexican American cultural values scale for adolescents and adults. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30(3), 444–481.
Lam, A. G., & Zane, N. W. (2004). Ethnic differences in coping with interpersonal stressors a test of self-construals as cultural mediators. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(4), 446–459.
Landrine, H., & Klonoff, E. A. (1996). African-American Acculturation: Deconstructing race and reviving culture. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Lewis, K. M., Sullivan, C. M., & Bybee, D. (2006). An experimental evaluation of a school-based emancipatory intervention to promote African-American well-being and youth leadership. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(1), 3–28.
Martin, B. L. (1991). From Negro to Black to African-American: the power of names and naming. Political Science Quarterly, 106(1), 83–107.
McLoyd, V. C. (1990). Minority children: introduction to the special issue. Child Development, 61(2), 263–266.
Mellor, D. (2004). Furthering the use of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire: reliability with younger child respondents. Psychological Assessment, 16(4), 396–401. PubMed
Milton, B., Woods, S. E., Dugdill, L., Porcellato, L., & Springett, R. J. (2008). Starting young? Children’s experiences of trying smoking during pre-adolescence. Health Education Research, 23(2), 298–309. PubMed
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus User’s Guide. 6th edn. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.
Myrdal, G. (1944). An American dilemma, Volume 2: The Negro problem and modern democracy, p. 2, Location: Transaction Publishers.
Nobles, W. W. (1991). African philosophy: Foundations for black psychology. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black psychology (3rd edn., pp. 47–63). Berkeley: Cobb & Henry Publishers.
Ogbu, J. U. (1981). Origins of human competence: a cultural-ecological perspective. Child Development, 52(2), 413–429.
Patterson, G. R., Forgatch, M. S., Yoerger, K. L., & Stoolmiller, M. (1998). Variables that initiate and maintain an early-onset trajectory for juvenile offending. Development and Psychopathology, 10(3), 531–547. PubMed
Perry, P. (2001). White Means Never Having to Say You’re Ethnic: white children and the construction of “cultureless” identities. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 30(1), 56–91.
Phan, T. and Glander, M. (2008). Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Public Elementary/Secondary School Locale Code File: School Year 2005-06 (NCES 2008-332). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved December 5, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2008332.
Phinney, J. S., Ong, A., & Madden, T. (2000). Cultural values and intergenerational value discrepancies in immigrant and non‐immigrant families. Child Development, 71(2), 528–539. PubMed
Pilgrim, C., & Rueda-Riedle, A. (2002). The importance of social context in cross-cultural comparisons: first graders in Colombia and the United States. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163(3), 283–295. PubMed
Quintana, S. M. (1994). A model of ethnic perspective-taking ability applied to Mexican-American children and children. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18(4), 419–448.
Quintana, S. M., & Vera, E. M. (1999). Mexican American children’s ethnic identity, understanding of ethnic prejudice, and parental ethnic socialization. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(4), 387–404.
Rumbaut, R. G., & Portes, A. (2001). Ethnicities: Children of immigrants in America. Berkley: University of California Press.
Russo, M. F., Stokes, G. S., Lahey, B. B., Christ, M. A. G., McBurnett, K., Loeber, R., & Green, S. M. (1993). A sensation seeking scale for children: further refinement and psychometric development. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 15(2), 69–86.
Sabogal, F., Marin, G., Otero-Sabogal, R., VanOss Marin, B., & Perez-Stable, E. J. (1987). Hispanic familism and acculturation: what changes and what doesn’t? Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9(4), 397–412. https://doi.org/10.1177/07399863870094003.
Schor, J. B. (2004). Born to buy: The commercialized child and the new consumer culture. New York: Scribner.
Schwartz, S. H. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology, 48(1), 23–47.
Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Des Rosiers, S. E., Lorenzo-Blanco, E. I., Zamboanga, B. L., Huang, S., & Szapocznik, J. (2014). Domains of acculturation and their effects on substance use and sexual behavior in recent Hispanic immigrant adolescents. Prevention Science, 15(3), 385–396. PubMedPubMedCentral
Schwartz, S., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 65(4), 237–251. PubMed
Schwartz, S. J., Waterman, A. S., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Lee, R. M., Kim, S. Y., Vazsonyi, A. T., & Williams, M. K. (2013). Acculturation and well-being among college students from immigrant families. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(4), 298–318. PubMed
Smith, C. O., Levine, D., Smith, E. P., Prinz, R. J., & Dumas, E. (2009). The emergence of racial-ethnic identity in children and its role in adjustment: a developmental perspective. Cultural diversity and ethnic minority. Psychology, 15(2), 145–157.
Sprague, J., & Walker, H. (2000). Early identification and intervention for youth with antisocial and violent behavior. Exceptional Children, 66(3), 367–379.
Spencer, M. B., Dupree, D., & Hartmann, T. (1997). A phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (PVEST): a self-organization perspective in context. Development and Psychopathology, 9(4), 817–833. PubMed
Steidel, A. G. L., & Contreras, J. M. (2003). A new Familism scale for use with Latino populations. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(3), 312–330. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739986303256912.
Sudarkasa, N. (1998). Interpreting the African heritage in Afro-American family organization. In H. P. McAdoo (Ed.), Black families (2nd edn., pp. 27–43). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Experimental Designs Using ANOVA. Belmont: Thomson/Brooks/Cole.
Tamis‐LeMonda, C. S., Way, N., Hughes, D., Yoshikawa, H., Kalman, R. K., & Niwa, E. Y. (2007). Parents’ goals for children: the dynamic coexistence of individualism and collectivism in cultures and individuals. Social Development, 17(1), 183–209.
Thomas, D. E., Townsend, T. G., & Belgrave, F. Z. (2003). The influence of cultural and racial identification on the psychosocial adjustment of inner‐city African-American children in school. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32(3-4), 217–228. PubMed
Triandis, H. C. (1990). Theoretical concepts that are applicable to the analysis of ethnocentrism. Applied Cross-cultural Psychology, 14, 34–55.
Triandis, H. C., & Gelfand, M. J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(1), 118–128.
Triandis, H. C., McCusker, C., & Hui, C. H. (1990). Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(5), 1006–1020.
Tseng, V. (2004). Family interdependence and academic adjustment in college: youth from immigrant and US‐born families. Child Development, 75(3), 966–983. PubMed
Tyler, K. M., Boykin, A. W., Miller, O., & Hurley, E. (2006). Cultural values in the home and school experiences of low-income African-American students. Social Psychology of Education, 9(4), 363–380.
United States Census Bureau (2017). U.S. Census, QuickFacts. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045217.
Vargas, J. H., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2013). Ethnicity and contemporary American culture: a meta-analytic investigation of horizontal–vertical individualism–collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(2), 195–222.
Veenhoven, R. (1999). Quality-of-life in individualistic society. Social Indicators Research, 48(2), 159–188.
Vélez-Agosto, N. M., Soto-Crespo, J. G., Vizcarrondo-Oppenheimer, M., Vega-Molina, S., & García Coll, C. (2017). Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory revision: moving culture from the macro into the micro. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(5), 900–910. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1745691617704397 PubMed
Wang, S., & Tamis-Lemonda, C. S. (2003). Do child-rearing values in Taiwan and the United States reflect cultural values of collectivism and individualism? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(6), 629–642.
Waterman, A. S. (1981). Individualism and interdependence. American Psychologist, 36(7), 762–773.
Williams, R. M. (1970). American society: A sociological interpretation (3rd edn.). New York: Knopf.
Witherspoon, D. P., Daniels, L. L., Mason, A. E., & Smith, E. P. (2016). Racial-ethnic identity in context: examining mediation of neighborhood factors on children’s academic adjustment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 57(1-2), 87–101. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12019. PubMedPubMedCentral
Yamada, A. M., & Singelis, T. M. (1999). Biculturalism and self-construal. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(5), 697–709.
Yau, J. P., Tasopoulos-Chan, M., & Smetana, J. G. (2009). Disclosure to parents about everyday activities among American adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Child Development, 80(5), 1481–1498. PubMed
- Cultural Values and Behavior among African American and European American Children
Emilie Phillips Smith
Dawn P. Witherspoon
J. Maria Bermudez
- Springer US