Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This study explores the relationships of individualistic (e.g., competition, material success) and collectivistic values (e.g., familism, respect) with risky and prosocial behavior among African-American and European-Americanyouth. While previous work has focused upon immigrant adolescents, this study expands the research exploring cultural values to other racial-ethnic groups and to a younger developmental period. This study builds upon culture as individually experienced beliefs and practices, potentially espousing multiple cultural orientations and relationships to behavior.
Data from Cohort 3 of a study of 219 urban, suburban, and rural children included African-American (42%) and European-American (58%) children, 54% female, ranging from grades 1–5 (mean age = 9). Multigroup structural equation models were tested resulting in a measurement model that fit similarly across groups (RMSEA = .05, CFI = .94).
African-American children reported higher levels of individualism, and African-American and European-American children reported espousing similar levels of collectivism. Children in higher grades were found to be more collectivistic and less individualistic. Individualistic values were related to children’s lower prosocial and higher rates of problem and delinquent behavior. Collectivistic cultural values were associated with reduced rates of problem behaviors, controlling for race-ethnicity, gender and grade.
Results provide support for the assertion that youth espouse multiple cultural orientations and that collectivistic cultural values can serve as promotive factors for children of diverse backgrounds. Practice and policy should seek to understand the role of family, school, and community socialization of multiple cultural orientations and nuanced associations with risk and resilience.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aboud, F. E. (1988). Children and prejudice. Oxford: B. Blackwell.
Alltucker, K. W., Bullis, M., Close, D., & Yovanoff, P. (2006). Different pathways to juvenile delinquency: characteristics of early and late starters in a sample of previously incarcerated youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(4), 475–488. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-006-9032-2. CrossRef
Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 55(3), 303–332. CrossRef
Billingsley, A. (1994). Climbing Jacob’s ladder: The enduring legacies of African-American families. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Boykin, A. W. (1986). The triple quandary and the schooling of Afro-American children. In U. Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children (pp. 57–92). Hillsdale: Earlbaum.
Brewer, M. B., & Chen, Y. R. (2007). Where (who) are collectives in collectivism? Toward conceptual clarification of individualism and collectivism. Psychological Review, 114(1), 133–151. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2184.108.40.206. PubMedCrossRef
Cabrera, N. J., the SRCD Ethnic and Racial Issues Committee. (2013). Positive development of minority. Children Social Policy Report, 27(2), 1–22. CrossRef
Calzada, E. J., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Yoshikawa, H. (2013). Familismo in Mexican and Dominican families from low-income, urban communities. Journal of Family Issues, 34(12), 1696–1724. CrossRef
Cohen, P., & Cohen, J. (1996). Research monographs in adolescence. Life values and adolescent mental health. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2001). Cultural orientations in the United States: (Re) examining differences among ethnic groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(3), 348–364. CrossRef
Diener, E., & Diener, M. (2009). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. In E. Diener (Ed.), Culture and Well-Being: The collected works of Ed Diener (pp. 71–91). Dordrecht: Springer.
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C., Reuman, Flanagan, C., & MacIver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: the impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48(2), 90–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.90. PubMedCrossRef
Erikson, E. H. (1994). Identity: Youth and crisis (No. 7). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Fuligni, A. J. (2001), Family obligation and the academic motivation of adolescents from Asian, Latin American, and European backgrounds. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.31.
Furr, M. (2011). Scale construction and psychometrics for social and personality psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Genovese, E. D. (1976). Roll, Jordan, roll: The world the slaves made. p. 652, New York: Vintage.
Gilligan, Carol (1982). In a Different Voice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Guerra, N., & Smith, E. P. (2006). Preventing youth violence in a multicultural society. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Gutman, H. G. (1976). Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, pp. 1750–1925. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.
Gutman, L. M., & Eccles, J. S. (2007). Stage-environment fit during adolescence: trajectories of family relations and adolescent outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 522–537. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.112. PubMedCrossRef
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 207–219). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Hu, L. C., Ispa, J. M., & Rudy, D. (2006). Parental control in Latino families: an integrated review of the literature. Child Development, 77, 1268–1281. CrossRef
Hardaway, C., & Fuligni, A. J. (2006). Dimensions of family connectedness among adolescents with Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1246–1258. CrossRef
Herskovits, M. J. (1990). The Myth of the Negro Past. Boston: Beacon Press.
Hill, R. B. (1999). The Strengths of African-American Families: Twenty-Five Years Later. Landham: University Press of America.
Hill, N. E. (2006). Disentangling ethnicity, socioeconomic status and parenting: interactions, influences and meaning. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 1(1), 114–124. CrossRef
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. CrossRef
Ispa, J. M., Fine, M. A., Halgunseth, L. C., Harper, S., Robinson, J., Boyce, L., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Brady-Smith, C. (2004). Maternal intrusiveness, maternal warmth, and mother-toddler relationship outcomes: variations across low-income ethnic and acculturation groups. Child Development, 75(6), 1613–1631. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00806.x. PubMedCrossRef
Jagers, R. J. (1998). Afrocultural integrity and the social development of African-American children: some conceptual, empirical, and practical considerations. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 16(1-2), 7–34. CrossRef
Kâğitçibaşi, C. (1997). Individualism and collectivism. In J. W. Berry, M. H. Segall & Ç. Kâğıtçıbaş (Eds.), Handbook of Cross-cultural Psychology: Volume 3, Social Behavior and Applications (2nd edn., pp. 1–49). Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.
Kasser, T., & Ahuvia, A. (2002). Materialistic values and well‐being in business students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(1), 137–146. CrossRef
Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Sheldon, K. M. (2004). Materialistic values: their causes and consequences. In T. Kasser & A. D. Kanner (Eds.), Psychology and consumer culture: The struggle for a good life in a materialistic world (pp. 11–28). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Kim, U. E., Triandis, H. C., Kâğitçibaşi, Ç. E., Choi, S. C. E., & Yoon, G. E. (1994). Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Knight, G. P., Gonzales, N. A., Saenz, D. S., Bonds, D. D., Germán, M., Deardorff, J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2009). The Mexican American cultural values scale for adolescents and adults. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30(3), 444–481. CrossRef
Lam, A. G., & Zane, N. W. (2004). Ethnic differences in coping with interpersonal stressors a test of self-construals as cultural mediators. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(4), 446–459. CrossRef
Landrine, H., & Klonoff, E. A. (1996). African-American Acculturation: Deconstructing race and reviving culture. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Lewis, K. M., Sullivan, C. M., & Bybee, D. (2006). An experimental evaluation of a school-based emancipatory intervention to promote African-American well-being and youth leadership. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(1), 3–28. CrossRef
Martin, B. L. (1991). From Negro to Black to African-American: the power of names and naming. Political Science Quarterly, 106(1), 83–107. CrossRef
McLoyd, V. C. (1990). Minority children: introduction to the special issue. Child Development, 61(2), 263–266. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus User’s Guide. 6th edn. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.
Myrdal, G. (1944). An American dilemma, Volume 2: The Negro problem and modern democracy, p. 2, Location: Transaction Publishers.
Nobles, W. W. (1991). African philosophy: Foundations for black psychology. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black psychology (3rd edn., pp. 47–63). Berkeley: Cobb & Henry Publishers.
Ogbu, J. U. (1981). Origins of human competence: a cultural-ecological perspective. Child Development, 52(2), 413–429. CrossRef
Perry, P. (2001). White Means Never Having to Say You’re Ethnic: white children and the construction of “cultureless” identities. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 30(1), 56–91. CrossRef
Phan, T. and Glander, M. (2008). Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Public Elementary/Secondary School Locale Code File: School Year 2005-06 (NCES 2008-332). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved December 5, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2008332.
Quintana, S. M. (1994). A model of ethnic perspective-taking ability applied to Mexican-American children and children. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18(4), 419–448. CrossRef
Quintana, S. M., & Vera, E. M. (1999). Mexican American children’s ethnic identity, understanding of ethnic prejudice, and parental ethnic socialization. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(4), 387–404. CrossRef
Rumbaut, R. G., & Portes, A. (2001). Ethnicities: Children of immigrants in America. Berkley: University of California Press.
Russo, M. F., Stokes, G. S., Lahey, B. B., Christ, M. A. G., McBurnett, K., Loeber, R., & Green, S. M. (1993). A sensation seeking scale for children: further refinement and psychometric development. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 15(2), 69–86. CrossRef
Schor, J. B. (2004). Born to buy: The commercialized child and the new consumer culture. New York: Scribner.
Schwartz, S. H. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology, 48(1), 23–47. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Des Rosiers, S. E., Lorenzo-Blanco, E. I., Zamboanga, B. L., Huang, S., & Szapocznik, J. (2014). Domains of acculturation and their effects on substance use and sexual behavior in recent Hispanic immigrant adolescents. Prevention Science, 15(3), 385–396. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Smith, C. O., Levine, D., Smith, E. P., Prinz, R. J., & Dumas, E. (2009). The emergence of racial-ethnic identity in children and its role in adjustment: a developmental perspective. Cultural diversity and ethnic minority. Psychology, 15(2), 145–157.
Sprague, J., & Walker, H. (2000). Early identification and intervention for youth with antisocial and violent behavior. Exceptional Children, 66(3), 367–379.
Sudarkasa, N. (1998). Interpreting the African heritage in Afro-American family organization. In H. P. McAdoo (Ed.), Black families (2nd edn., pp. 27–43). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Experimental Designs Using ANOVA. Belmont: Thomson/Brooks/Cole.
Tamis‐LeMonda, C. S., Way, N., Hughes, D., Yoshikawa, H., Kalman, R. K., & Niwa, E. Y. (2007). Parents’ goals for children: the dynamic coexistence of individualism and collectivism in cultures and individuals. Social Development, 17(1), 183–209.
Triandis, H. C. (1990). Theoretical concepts that are applicable to the analysis of ethnocentrism. Applied Cross-cultural Psychology, 14, 34–55. CrossRef
Triandis, H. C., & Gelfand, M. J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(1), 118–128. CrossRef
Triandis, H. C., McCusker, C., & Hui, C. H. (1990). Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(5), 1006–1020. CrossRef
Tyler, K. M., Boykin, A. W., Miller, O., & Hurley, E. (2006). Cultural values in the home and school experiences of low-income African-American students. Social Psychology of Education, 9(4), 363–380. CrossRef
United States Census Bureau (2017). U.S. Census, QuickFacts. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045217.
Vargas, J. H., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2013). Ethnicity and contemporary American culture: a meta-analytic investigation of horizontal–vertical individualism–collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(2), 195–222. CrossRef
Veenhoven, R. (1999). Quality-of-life in individualistic society. Social Indicators Research, 48(2), 159–188. CrossRef
Vélez-Agosto, N. M., Soto-Crespo, J. G., Vizcarrondo-Oppenheimer, M., Vega-Molina, S., & García Coll, C. (2017). Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory revision: moving culture from the macro into the micro. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(5), 900–910. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1745691617704397 PubMedCrossRef
Wang, S., & Tamis-Lemonda, C. S. (2003). Do child-rearing values in Taiwan and the United States reflect cultural values of collectivism and individualism? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(6), 629–642. CrossRef
Waterman, A. S. (1981). Individualism and interdependence. American Psychologist, 36(7), 762–773. CrossRef
Williams, R. M. (1970). American society: A sociological interpretation (3rd edn.). New York: Knopf.
Witherspoon, D. P., Daniels, L. L., Mason, A. E., & Smith, E. P. (2016). Racial-ethnic identity in context: examining mediation of neighborhood factors on children’s academic adjustment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 57(1-2), 87–101. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12019. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Yamada, A. M., & Singelis, T. M. (1999). Biculturalism and self-construal. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(5), 697–709. CrossRef
- Cultural Values and Behavior among African American and European American Children
Emilie Phillips Smith
Dawn P. Witherspoon
J. Maria Bermudez
- Springer US