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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 4/2017

29-07-2016

Clinical, Sociobiological, and Cognitive Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Children Followed Prospectively Over Time

Auteurs: Tara McAuley, Jennifer Crosbie, Alice Charach, Russell Schachar

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 4/2017

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Abstract

With increasing awareness that ADHD is chronically disabling, a burgeoning literature has examined childhood clinical indicators of ADHD persistence. This study investigates whether childhood factors reflecting biological risk and cognitive reserve have additive predictive value for the persistence of ADHD that is unique beyond childhood indicators of disorder severity. One-hundred thirty children with ADHD (mean age = 8.9 years, 75 % male) were followed into adolescence (mean age = 14.0 years). Childhood ADHD and co-morbidities were assessed via interviews with parents and teachers; parental psychopathology was assessed via parent interview; exposure to neurobiological and psychosocial adversity were indexed by parent questionnaire; and cognitive reserve was evaluated through children’s performance on measures of IQ and executive functioning. Univariate analyses identified childhood inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, co-morbid oppositional defiant disorder, overall impairment, and paternal anxiety and depression as more prevalent amongst adolescents with persistent compared with remitted ADHD. Only child-level predictors remained significant in a final multivariate model. These results suggest that children who are most likely to experience persistent ADHD have a more severe clinical presentation in childhood, reflected by increased levels of inattention, oppositional behavior, and impairment. They also are more likely to have fathers with internalizing concerns, but these concerns do not uniquely predict ADHD persistence beyond child-level factors. Contrary to expectations, childhood adversity and cognitive functioning did not predict the course of ADHD.

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Voetnoten
1
Because paternal anxiety and depression were moderately correlated (r = .54), we re-ran multivariate models including one and not the other. Doing so revealed a unique effect of paternal depression (p = 0.051). Further exploratory analyses also revealed a significant interaction between paternal depression and childhood ODD (p = 0.001).
 
2
A 4-year follow-up of ADHD boys found that childhood hyperactivity-impulsivity and conduct disorder (CD) predicted ADHD persistence; however, these boys were recruited due to their highly disruptive behavior and evidenced high rates of co-morbid CD, thus may not be representative of boys with ADHD more generally (Hart et al. 1995).
 
3
Given that mood difficulties can present as irritability, we re-ran our analyses controlling for scores on the Children’s Depression Inventory. ODD remained a predictor of ADHD persistence.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Clinical, Sociobiological, and Cognitive Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Children Followed Prospectively Over Time
Auteurs
Tara McAuley
Jennifer Crosbie
Alice Charach
Russell Schachar
Publicatiedatum
29-07-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 4/2017
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0189-x