Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents’ risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate photos or videos to someone online, and sending one’s telephone number and address to someone exclusively known online. The relationship between these behaviors and adolescents’ perceptions of peer involvement, personal invulnerability, and risks and benefits was investigated. A two-wave longitudinal study among a representative sample of 1,445 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 was conducted (49% females). Autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that perceived peer involvement, perceived vulnerability, and perceived risks were all significant predictors of risky sexual online behavior 6 months later. No reverse causal paths were found. When the relationships between perceptions and risky sexual online behavior were modeled simultaneously, only perceived peer involvement was a determinant of risky sexual online behavior. Findings highlight the importance of addressing peer involvement in future interventions to reduce adolescents’ risky sexual online behavior.
Arnett, J. J. (2007). The myth of peer influence in adolescent smoking initiation. Health Education & Behavior, 34, 594–607.
Beyth-Marom, R., Austin, L., Fischhoff, B., Palmgren, C., & Jacobs-Quadrel, M. (1993). Perceived consequences of risky behaviors: Adults and adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 29, 549–563. CrossRef
Boyer, T. W. (2006). The development of risk-taking: A multi-perspective review. Developmental Review, 26, 291–345. CrossRef
Buzwell, S., & Rosenthal, D. (1996). Constructing a sexual self: Adolescents’ sexual self-perceptions and sexual risk-taking. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6, 489–513.
Dahl, R. E. (2004). Adolescent brain development: A period of vulnerabilities and opportunities – keynote address. Adolescent Brain Development: Vulnerabilities and Opportunities, 1021, 1–22.
Duimel, M., & De Haan, J. (2007). Nieuwe links in het gezin [New links in the family]. The Hague, the Netherlands: SCP.
Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R. J. (1993). An introduction to the bootstrap. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall.
Elkind, D. (1985). Egocentrism redux. Developmental Review, 5, 218–226. CrossRef
Eurobarometer. (2008). Towards a safer use of the internet for children in the EU: A parents’ perspective (Flash Eurobarometer Series No. 248). Luxembourg: European Commission.
Festinger, L. A. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
Furby, L., & Beyth-Marom, R. (1992). Risk-taking in adolescence: A decision-making perspective. Developmental Review, 12, 1–44. CrossRef
Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Houlihan, A. E., Stock, M. L., & Pomery, E. A. (2008). A dual-process approach to health risk decision making: The prototype willingness model. Developmental Review, 28, 29–61. CrossRef
Heilbron, N., & Prinstein, M. J. (2008). Peer influence and adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: A theoretical review of mechanisms and moderators. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 12, 169–177. CrossRef
Iannotti, R. J., & Bush, P. J. (1992). Perceived vs. actual friends’ use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine: Which has the most influence? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 375–389. CrossRef
Igra, V., & Irwin, C. E., Jr. (1996). Theories of adolescent risk-taking behavior. In R. J. DiClemente, W. B. Hansen, & L. E. Ponton (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent health risk behavior (pp. 35–51). New York: Plenum Press.
Inhelder, B., & Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence. New York: Basic Books. CrossRef
Jessor, R. (1992). Risk behavior in adolescence: A psychosocial framework for understanding action. Developmental Review, 12, 374–390. CrossRef
Lenhart, A. (2005). Protecting teens online. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project.
Liau, A. K., Khoo, A., & Ang, P. H. (2005). Factors influencing adolescents engagement in risky internet behavior. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8, 513–520. CrossRef
Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., & Shahar, G. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9, 151–173. CrossRef
Livingstone, S., & Bober, M. (2004). UK children go online: Surveying the experiences of young people and their parents [online]. London: LSE Research Online. Retrieved October 7, 2009, from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/archive/00000395.
Livingstone, S., & Haddon, L. (2008). Risky experiences for children online: Charting European research on children and the internet. Children and Society, 22, 314–323. CrossRef
Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. J. (2007). Taking risks when communicating on the internet: The role of offline social-psychological factors in young people’s vulnerability to online risks. Information, Communication & Society, 10, 619–644. CrossRef
Long, J. S., & Ervin, L. H. (2000). Using heteroscedasticity-consistent standard errors in the linear regression model. The American Statistician, 54, 217–224. CrossRef
Matsunaga, M. (2008). Item parceling in structural equation modeling: A primer. Communication Methods and Measures, 2, 260–293. CrossRef
Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2001). Risk factors for and impact of online sexual solicitation of youth. JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 3011–3014. CrossRef
Moreno, M. A., VanderStoep, A., Parks, M. R., Zimmerman, F. J., Kurth, A., & Christakis, D. A. (2009). Reducing at-risk adolescents’ display of risk behavior on a social networking web site. A randomized controlled pilot intervention trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 35–41. CrossRef
Mustanski, B. S. (2001). Getting wired: Exploiting the internet for the collection of sexually valid data. Journal of Sex Research, 38, 292–301. CrossRef
Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2006). Adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit material on the Internet. Communication Research, 33, 178–204. CrossRef
Ponte, C., Bauwens, J., & Mascheroni, G. (2009). Children and the internet in the news: Agency, voices and agendas. In S. Livingstone & L. Haddon (Eds.), Kids online. Opportunities and risks for children (pp. 159–172). Bristol, UK: The Policy Press.
Rai, A. A., Stanton, B., Wu, Y., Li, X. M., Galbraith, J., Cottrell, L., et al. (2003). Relative influences of perceived parental monitoring and perceived peer involvement on adolescent risk behaviors: An analysis of six cross-sectional data sets. Journal of Adolescent Health, 33, 108–118. CrossRefPubMed
Schlüter, E., Davidov, E., & Schmidt, P. (2006). The dynamics of authoritarianism and anomia: Applying autoregressive cross-lagged and latent growth models to a three-wave panel study. In K. Montfort, H. Oud, & A. Satorra (Eds.), Longitudinal models in the behavioral and related sciences. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, EAM Book Series.
Schroeder, C. M., & Prentice, D. A. (1998). Exposing pluralistic ignorance to reduce alcohol use among college students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 2150–2180. CrossRef
Siegel, A. W., Cousins, J. H., Rubovits, D., Parsons, J. T., Lavery, B., & Crowley, C. (1994). Adolescents’ perceptions of the benefits and risks of their own risk-taking. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2, 89–98. CrossRef
Sofronoff, K., Dalgliesh, L., & Kosky, R. (2005). Out of options. A cognitive model of adolescent suicide and risk-taking. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Unger, J. B., & Rohrbach, L. A. (2002). Why do adolescents overestimate their peers’ smoking prevalence? Correlates of prevalence estimates among California 8th-grade students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 147–153. CrossRef
Vartanian, L. R. (2000). Revisiting the imaginary audience and personal fable constructs of adolescent egocentrism: A conceptual review. Adolescence, 35, 639–661. PubMed
Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., & Mitchell, K. J. (2008). Is talking online to unknown people always risky? Distinguishing online interaction styles in a national sample of youth Internet users. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11, 340–343. CrossRef
Ybarra, M. L., Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2007). Internet prevention messages. Targeting the right online behaviors. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161, 138–145. CrossRef
Youn, S. (2005). Teenagers’ perceptions of online privacy and coping behaviors: A risk-benefit appraisal approach. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49, 86–110. CrossRef
- Assessing Causality in the Relationship Between Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of this Behavior
Susanne E. Baumgartner
Patti M. Valkenburg
- Springer US