Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Executive dysfunction has been postulated as the core deficit in ADHD, although many deficits in lower order cognitive processes have also been identified. By obtaining an appropriate baseline of lower order cognitive functioning light may be shed on as to whether executive deficits result from problems in lower order and/or higher order cognitive processes. We examined motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in relation to a baseline measure in 816 children from ADHD and control families. Multiple children in a family were tested in order to examine the familiality of the measures. No evidence was found for deficits in motor inhibition or cognitive flexibility in children with ADHD or their nonaffected siblings: Compared to their baseline speed and accuracy of responding, children with ADHD and their (non)affected siblings were not disproportionally slower or inaccurate when demands for motor inhibition or cognitive flexibility were added to the task. However, children with ADHD and their (non)affected siblings were overall less accurate than controls, which could not be attributed to differences in response speed. This suggests that inaccuracy of responding is characteristic of children having (a familial risk for) ADHD. Motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility as operationalized with mean reaction time were found to be familial. It is concluded that poorer performance on executive tasks in children with ADHD and their (non)affected siblings may result from deficiencies in lower order cognitive processes and not (only) from higher order cognitive processes/executive functions.
Almasy, L., & Blangero, J. (2001). Endophenotypes as quantitative risk factors for psychiatric disease: Rationale and study design. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 105, 42–44. CrossRef
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Barkley, R. A. (1990). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford.
Berument, S. K., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Pickles, A., & Bailey, A. (1999). Autism screening questionnaire: Diagnostic validity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 444–451. PubMed
Boonstra, A. M., Kooij, J. J., Oosterlaan, J., Sergeant, J. A., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2005a). Does methylphenidate improve inhibition and other cognitive abilities in adults with childhood-onset ADHD? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27, 278–298. CrossRef
Boonstra, A. M., Oosterlaan, J., Sergeant, J. A., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2005b). Executive functioning in adult ADHD: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1097–1108. CrossRef
Casey, B. J., Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Marsh, W. L., Hamburger, S. D., Schubert, A. B., et al. (1997). Implication of right frontostriatal circuitry in response inhibition and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 374–383. PubMedCrossRef
Castellanos, F. X., & Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 617–628. PubMed
Conners, K. (1996). Rating scales in ADHD. Durham, NC: Duke University Medical Center.
De Sonneville, L. M. J. (1999). Amsterdam Neuropsychological Task: A computer-aided assessment program. In B. P. L. M. Den Brinker, P. J. Beek, A. N. Brand, S. J. Maarse, & L. J. M. Mulder (Eds.), Cognitive ergonomics, clinical assessment and computer-assisted learning: Computers in psychology (vol. 6, pp. 204–217). Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Domin, D. S. (1999). A content analyses of general chemistry laboratory manuals for evidence of higher order-order cognitive tasks. Journal of Chemical Education, 76, 109–111. CrossRef
Dowson, J. H., McLean, A., Bazanis, E., Toone, B., Young, S., & Robbins, T. W., et al. (2004). Impaired spatial working memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Comparisons with performance in adults with borderline personality disorder and in control subjects. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 110, 45–54.
Doyle, A.E. (2006). Executive functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(Suppl), 21–26. PubMed
Garcia-Sanchez, C., Estevez-Gonzalez, A., Suarez-Romero, E., & Junque, C. (1997). Right hemisphere dysfunction in subjects with attention-deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity. Journal of Child Neurology, 12, 107–115. PubMed
Groth-Marnat, G. (1997). Handbook of psychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Holyoak, K. J., & Kroger, J. K. (1995). Forms of reasoning: Insight into frontal functions? Paper presented at the workshop on Structure and Functions of the Human Prefrontal Cortex. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, March 2–4, 1995.
Logan, G. D., & Cowan, W. B. (1984). On the ability to inhibit thought and action: A theory of an act of control. Psychological Review, 91, 295–327. CrossRef
Los, S. A. (1996). On the origin of mixing costs: Exploring information processing in pure and mixed blocks of trials. Acta Psychologica, 94, 145–188. CrossRef
Lovejoy, D. W., Ball, J. D., Keats, M., Stutts, M. L., Spain, E. H., Janda, L., et al. (1999). Neuropsychological performance of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Diagnostic classification estimates for measures of frontal lobe/executive functioning. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 5, 222–233. PubMedCrossRef
Rubia, K., Overmeyer, S., Taylor, E., Brammer, M., Williams, S. C., Simmons, A., et al. (1999). Hypofrontality in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during higher order–order motor control: A study with functional MRI. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 891–896. PubMed
Rubinstein, J. S., Meyer, D. E., & Evans, J. E. (2001). Executive control of cognitive processes in task switching. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27, 763–797. PubMed
Sergeant, J. A., & Van der Meere, J.J. (1990). Convergence of approaches in localizing the hyperactivity deficit. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advancements in clinical child psychology (vol. 13, pp. 207–245). New York: Plenum.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Wechsler, D. (2000). WAIS-III Nederlandstalige bewerking. Technische handleiding. London: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (2002). WISC-III Handleiding. London: The Psychological Corporation.
- Are Motor Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility Dead Ends in ADHD?
Nanda N. J. Rommelse
Marieke E. Altink
Leo M. J. de Sonneville
Cathelijne J. M. Buschgens
Joseph A. Sergeant
- Springer US