Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 4/2021

27-02-2021 | Original Paper

African-American Mothers’ Socialization Strategies to Address Adolescent-related Academic Expectations and Risk Concerns

Auteurs: Nestor Tulagan, Jacquelynne S. Eccles

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 4/2021

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Parental socialization entails purposeful and goal-driven strategies that promote positive youth development and prevent youth-related risks and challenges. Guided by a family management perspective, we examined the variety in African-American mothers’ academic expectations and risk concerns for adolescents, and the parenting strategies they employ to address each of these beliefs. We also examined the associations between mothers’ beliefs and strategies, as well as variations across adolescent gender and socioeconomic status (SES). We used open-response data collected from 619 African-American mothers of eighth-graders from Prince George’s County, Maryland, varying in adolescent gender, maternal education, family income, and family structure. We systematically coded interview data and tabulated main categories, subcategories, and first-round codes. Then, we conducted multivariate regression analyses to examine the relations between academic expectations, risk concerns, socialization strategies, and socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, mothers held high academic expectations, perceived contextual and behavioral problems for adolescents, and reported strategies that positioned them as direct and positive socializers. When mothers reported concerns for underachievement, they had increased odds of providing necessary materials and services, holding discussions, and expressing negative reactions. Finally, adolescent gender and family SES predicted academic expectations and risk concerns, as well as parenting strategies. Our study highlights the importance for studies to consider the purposeful nature of parenting, as socialization strategies were linked to specific developmental goals. Our findings call for the development of measures that capture a wider range of parenting strategies and contextualize these strategies to parents’ aims.
Literatuur
go back to reference Assari, S., Mistry, R., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Marijuana use and depressive symptoms; Gender differences in African American adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(2135), 1–12. Assari, S., Mistry, R., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Marijuana use and depressive symptoms; Gender differences in African American adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(2135), 1–12.
go back to reference Barton, A. W., Brody, G. H., Zapolski, T. C., Goings, T. C., Kogan, S. M., Windle, M., & Yu, T. (2018). Trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking among rural African American adolescents: multi-level predictors of class membership. Addiction, 112, 1439–1449. CrossRef Barton, A. W., Brody, G. H., Zapolski, T. C., Goings, T. C., Kogan, S. M., Windle, M., & Yu, T. (2018). Trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking among rural African American adolescents: multi-level predictors of class membership. Addiction, 112, 1439–1449. CrossRef
go back to reference Benner, A. D., & Graham, S. (2009). The transition to high school as a developmental process among multiethnic urban youth. Child Development, 80, 356–376. PubMedCrossRef Benner, A. D., & Graham, S. (2009). The transition to high school as a developmental process among multiethnic urban youth. Child Development, 80, 356–376. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bluestone, C., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (1999). Correlates of parenting styles in predominantly working- and middle-class African American mothers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 881–893. CrossRef Bluestone, C., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (1999). Correlates of parenting styles in predominantly working- and middle-class African American mothers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 881–893. CrossRef
go back to reference Boykin, A. W. (1986). Triple quandary and the schooling of Afro-American children. In U. Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children (pp. 57–92). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Boykin, A. W. (1986). Triple quandary and the schooling of Afro-American children. In U. Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children (pp. 57–92). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Bradley, C. (1998). Child rearing in African American families: a study of the disciplinary practices of African American parents. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 26, 273–281. CrossRef Bradley, C. (1998). Child rearing in African American families: a study of the disciplinary practices of African American parents. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 26, 273–281. CrossRef
go back to reference Burton, L. M., & Jarrett, R. L. (2000). In the mix, yet on the margins: the place of families in urban neighborhood and child developmental research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1114–1135. CrossRef Burton, L. M., & Jarrett, R. L. (2000). In the mix, yet on the margins: the place of families in urban neighborhood and child developmental research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1114–1135. CrossRef
go back to reference Clark, R. M. (1983). Family life and school achievement: why poor Black children succeed or fail. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Clark, R. M. (1983). Family life and school achievement: why poor Black children succeed or fail. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference Cleveland, M. J., Turrisi, R., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Marzell, M. (2018). The effects of mothers’ protective parenting and alcohol use on emerging adults’ alcohol use: testing indirect effects through prototype favorability among African American youth. Alcoholism, 42, 1291–1303. PubMedCrossRef Cleveland, M. J., Turrisi, R., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Marzell, M. (2018). The effects of mothers’ protective parenting and alcohol use on emerging adults’ alcohol use: testing indirect effects through prototype favorability among African American youth. Alcoholism, 42, 1291–1303. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cogburn, C. D., Chavous, T. M., & Griffin, T. M. (2011). School-based racial and gender discrimination among African American adolescents: exploring gender variation in frequency and implications for adjustment. Race and Social Problems, 3(1), 25–37. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Cogburn, C. D., Chavous, T. M., & Griffin, T. M. (2011). School-based racial and gender discrimination among African American adolescents: exploring gender variation in frequency and implications for adjustment. Race and Social Problems, 3(1), 25–37. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Collins, P. A 1990). Mammies, matriarchs, and other controlling images. In Black feminist thought: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. 69–96. New York, NY: Routledge. Collins, P. A 1990). Mammies, matriarchs, and other controlling images. In Black feminist thought: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. 69–96. New York, NY: Routledge.
go back to reference Cook, T. D., Herman, M. R., Phillips, M., & Setterstein, R. A. (2002). Some ways in which neighborhoods, nuclear families, friendship groups, and schools jointly affect changes in early adolescent development. Child Development, 73, 1283–1309. PubMedCrossRef Cook, T. D., Herman, M. R., Phillips, M., & Setterstein, R. A. (2002). Some ways in which neighborhoods, nuclear families, friendship groups, and schools jointly affect changes in early adolescent development. Child Development, 73, 1283–1309. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Corley, N. A., Reeves, P., & Odera, S. G. (2019). That’s just who I am: African American high school seniors and their mothers’ perspectives on academic success. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 1, 1–13. Corley, N. A., Reeves, P., & Odera, S. G. (2019). That’s just who I am: African American high school seniors and their mothers’ perspectives on academic success. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 1, 1–13.
go back to reference Cunningham, M., & Swanson, D. P. (2010). Educational resilience in African American adolescents. Journal of Negro Education, 79, 473–487. Cunningham, M., & Swanson, D. P. (2010). Educational resilience in African American adolescents. Journal of Negro Education, 79, 473–487.
go back to reference Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: the indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 294–304. PubMedCrossRef Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: the indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 294–304. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Eccles, J. S. (1993). School and family effects of the ontogeny of children’s interests, self-perceptions, and activity choice. In J. Jacobs (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1992: Developmental perspectives on motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Eccles, J. S. (1993). School and family effects of the ontogeny of children’s interests, self-perceptions, and activity choice. In J. Jacobs (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1992: Developmental perspectives on motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
go back to reference Finigan-Carr, N. M., Cheng, T. L., Gielen, A., Haynie, D. L., & Simons-Morton, B. (2015). Using the theory of planned behaviors to predict aggression and weapons carrying in urban African American early adolescent youth. Health Education & Behavior, 42, 220–230. CrossRef Finigan-Carr, N. M., Cheng, T. L., Gielen, A., Haynie, D. L., & Simons-Morton, B. (2015). Using the theory of planned behaviors to predict aggression and weapons carrying in urban African American early adolescent youth. Health Education & Behavior, 42, 220–230. CrossRef
go back to reference Francois, S., Overstreet, S., & Cunningham, M. (2013). Where we live. The unexpected influence of neighborhoods on the academic performance of African American adolescents. Youth & Society, 44, 307–328. CrossRef Francois, S., Overstreet, S., & Cunningham, M. (2013). Where we live. The unexpected influence of neighborhoods on the academic performance of African American adolescents. Youth & Society, 44, 307–328. CrossRef
go back to reference Furstenberg, F. F., Cook, T. D., Eccles, J. S., Elder, G. H., & Sameroff, A. (1999). Managing to make it: Urban families and adolescent success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Furstenberg, F. F., Cook, T. D., Eccles, J. S., Elder, G. H., & Sameroff, A. (1999). Managing to make it: Urban families and adolescent success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference García-Coll, C., Crnic, K., Lamberty, G., Wasik, B., Jenkins, R., Garcia, H., & McAdoo, H. (1996). Integrative model for the study of developmental competency in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891–1914. PubMedCrossRef García-Coll, C., Crnic, K., Lamberty, G., Wasik, B., Jenkins, R., Garcia, H., & McAdoo, H. (1996). Integrative model for the study of developmental competency in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891–1914. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gaylord-Harden, N. K., Dickson, D., & Pierre, C. (2016). Profiles of community violence exposure among African American youth: an examination of desensitization to violence using latent class analysis. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31, 2077–2101. PubMedCrossRef Gaylord-Harden, N. K., Dickson, D., & Pierre, C. (2016). Profiles of community violence exposure among African American youth: an examination of desensitization to violence using latent class analysis. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31, 2077–2101. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gutman, L. M., & McLoyd, V. C. (2000). Parents’ management of their children’s education within the home, at school, and in the community: an examination of African-American families living in poverty. The Urban Review, 32(1), 1–24. CrossRef Gutman, L. M., & McLoyd, V. C. (2000). Parents’ management of their children’s education within the home, at school, and in the community: an examination of African-American families living in poverty. The Urban Review, 32(1), 1–24. CrossRef
go back to reference Gutman, L. M., Eccles, J. S., Peck, S., & Malanchuk, O. (2011). The influence of family relations on trajectories of cigarette and alcohol use from early to late adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 119–128. PubMedCrossRef Gutman, L. M., Eccles, J. S., Peck, S., & Malanchuk, O. (2011). The influence of family relations on trajectories of cigarette and alcohol use from early to late adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 119–128. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gutman, L. M., Sameroff, A. J., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). The academic achievement of African American students during early adolescence: An examination of multiple risks, promotive, and protective factors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 367–399. PubMedCrossRef Gutman, L. M., Sameroff, A. J., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). The academic achievement of African American students during early adolescence: An examination of multiple risks, promotive, and protective factors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 367–399. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Harding, D. (2003). Counterfactual models of neighborhood effects: the effect of neighborhood poverty on dropping out and teenage pregnancy. American Journal of Sociology, 109, 676–719. CrossRef Harding, D. (2003). Counterfactual models of neighborhood effects: the effect of neighborhood poverty on dropping out and teenage pregnancy. American Journal of Sociology, 109, 676–719. CrossRef
go back to reference Hill, N. E., & Tyson, D. F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 45, 740–763. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hill, N. E., & Tyson, D. F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 45, 740–763. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Hill, N. E., & Wang, M. (2015). From middle school to college: developing aspirations, promoting engagement, and indirect pathways from parenting to post high school enrollment. Developmental Psychology, 51, 224–235. PubMedCrossRef Hill, N. E., & Wang, M. (2015). From middle school to college: developing aspirations, promoting engagement, and indirect pathways from parenting to post high school enrollment. Developmental Psychology, 51, 224–235. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hill, N. E., Witherspoon, D., & Bartz, D. (2018). Parental involvement during middle school: perspectives of ethnically diverse parents, teachers, and students. Journal of Educational Research, 111(1), 12–27. CrossRef Hill, N. E., Witherspoon, D., & Bartz, D. (2018). Parental involvement during middle school: perspectives of ethnically diverse parents, teachers, and students. Journal of Educational Research, 111(1), 12–27. CrossRef
go back to reference Jarrett, R. L., & Jefferson, S. R. (2003). “A good mother got to fight for her kids”: maternal management strategies in a high-risk African-American neighborhood. Journal of Children & Poverty, 9(1), 21–39. CrossRef Jarrett, R. L., & Jefferson, S. R. (2003). “A good mother got to fight for her kids”: maternal management strategies in a high-risk African-American neighborhood. Journal of Children & Poverty, 9(1), 21–39. CrossRef
go back to reference Jarrett, R. L., Bahar, O. S., & Taylor, M. A. (2011). “Holler, run, be loud:” strategies for promoting child physical activity in a low-income, African-American neighborhood. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 825–836. PubMedCrossRef Jarrett, R. L., Bahar, O. S., & Taylor, M. A. (2011). “Holler, run, be loud:” strategies for promoting child physical activity in a low-income, African-American neighborhood. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 825–836. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jeynes, W. H. (2016). A meta-analysis: the relationship between parental involvement and African American school outcomes. The Journal of Black Studies, 47, 195–216. CrossRef Jeynes, W. H. (2016). A meta-analysis: the relationship between parental involvement and African American school outcomes. The Journal of Black Studies, 47, 195–216. CrossRef
go back to reference Keels, M., Durkee, M., & Hope, E. (2017). The psychological and academic costs of school-based racial and ethnic microaggressions. American Educational Research Journal, 53(6), 1316–1344. CrossRef Keels, M., Durkee, M., & Hope, E. (2017). The psychological and academic costs of school-based racial and ethnic microaggressions. American Educational Research Journal, 53(6), 1316–1344. CrossRef
go back to reference Lareau, A. (2011). Unequal childhoods: class, race, and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press. CrossRef Lareau, A. (2011). Unequal childhoods: class, race, and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Mandara, J., Varner, F., & Richman, S. (2010). Do african american mothers really "love" their sons and "raise" their daughters? Journal of Family Psychology, 24(1), 41–50. PubMedCrossRef Mandara, J., Varner, F., & Richman, S. (2010). Do african american mothers really "love" their sons and "raise" their daughters? Journal of Family Psychology, 24(1), 41–50. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McAdoo, H. P. (1981). Upward mobility and parenting in middle-income Black families. The Journal of Black Psychology, 8(1), 1–22. CrossRef McAdoo, H. P. (1981). Upward mobility and parenting in middle-income Black families. The Journal of Black Psychology, 8(1), 1–22. CrossRef
go back to reference McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., Kim, J., Burton, L. M., Davis, K. D., Dotterer, A. M., & Swanson, D. P. (2006). Mothers’ and father’s racial socialization in African American families: Implications for youth. Child Development, 77, 1387–1402. PubMedCrossRef McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., Kim, J., Burton, L. M., Davis, K. D., Dotterer, A. M., & Swanson, D. P. (2006). Mothers’ and father’s racial socialization in African American families: Implications for youth. Child Development, 77, 1387–1402. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on Black families and children: psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–346. PubMedCrossRef McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on Black families and children: psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–346. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Moore, M., & Chase-Lansdale, P. (2001). Sexual intercourse and pregnancy among African American Girls In High-poverty Neighborhoods: The Role Of Family And Perceived Community Environment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1146–1157. CrossRef Moore, M., & Chase-Lansdale, P. (2001). Sexual intercourse and pregnancy among African American Girls In High-poverty Neighborhoods: The Role Of Family And Perceived Community Environment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1146–1157. CrossRef
go back to reference O’Donnell, P. O., Richards, M., Pearce, S., & Romero, E. (2012). Gender differences in monitoring and deviant peers as predictors of delinquent behavior among low-income urban African American youth. Journal of Early Adolescence, 32, 431–459. CrossRef O’Donnell, P. O., Richards, M., Pearce, S., & Romero, E. (2012). Gender differences in monitoring and deviant peers as predictors of delinquent behavior among low-income urban African American youth. Journal of Early Adolescence, 32, 431–459. CrossRef
go back to reference Poteat, V. P., Mereish, E. H., DiGiovanni, C. D., & Koenig, B. W. (2011). The effects of general and homophobic victimization on adolescents’ psychosocial and educational concerns: the importance of intersecting identities and parent support. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 597–609. PubMedCrossRef Poteat, V. P., Mereish, E. H., DiGiovanni, C. D., & Koenig, B. W. (2011). The effects of general and homophobic victimization on adolescents’ psychosocial and educational concerns: the importance of intersecting identities and parent support. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 597–609. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Saldaña, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles: SAGE. Saldaña, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles: SAGE.
go back to reference Shin, R. Q. (2011). The influence of Africentric values and neighborhood satisfaction on self-efficacy of African-American elementary school children. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 39, 218–228. CrossRef Shin, R. Q. (2011). The influence of Africentric values and neighborhood satisfaction on self-efficacy of African-American elementary school children. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 39, 218–228. CrossRef
go back to reference Simpkins, S. D., Fredricks, J., & Eccles, J. S. (2015). The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 80. Simpkins, S. D., Fredricks, J., & Eccles, J. S. (2015). The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 80.
go back to reference Smetana, J. G., & Chuang, S. (2001). Middle-class African American parents’ conceptions of parenting in early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 177–198. CrossRef Smetana, J. G., & Chuang, S. (2001). Middle-class African American parents’ conceptions of parenting in early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 177–198. CrossRef
go back to reference Smetana, J. G., Abernethy, A., & Harris, A. (2000). Adolescent-parent interactions in middle-class African American families: longitudinal change and contextual variations. Family Psychology, 14, 458–474. CrossRef Smetana, J. G., Abernethy, A., & Harris, A. (2000). Adolescent-parent interactions in middle-class African American families: longitudinal change and contextual variations. Family Psychology, 14, 458–474. CrossRef
go back to reference Smetana, J. G., Crean, H. F., & Daddis, C. (2002). Family processes and problem behaviors in middle-class African American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12, 275–304. CrossRef Smetana, J. G., Crean, H. F., & Daddis, C. (2002). Family processes and problem behaviors in middle-class African American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12, 275–304. CrossRef
go back to reference Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Briggs, R. D., McClowry, S. G., & Snow, D. L. (2008). Challenges to the study of African American parenting: conceptualization, sampling, research approaches, measurement, and design. Parenting: Science and Practice, 8, 319–358. CrossRef Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Briggs, R. D., McClowry, S. G., & Snow, D. L. (2008). Challenges to the study of African American parenting: conceptualization, sampling, research approaches, measurement, and design. Parenting: Science and Practice, 8, 319–358. CrossRef
go back to reference Tatum, B. D. (2004). Family life and school experience: factors in the racial identity development of Black youth in White communities. Journal of Social Issues, 60(1), 117–135. CrossRef Tatum, B. D. (2004). Family life and school experience: factors in the racial identity development of Black youth in White communities. Journal of Social Issues, 60(1), 117–135. CrossRef
go back to reference Thomas, A. J., & Blackmon, S. M. (2015). The influence of the Trayvon Martin shooting on racial socialization practices of African American parents. Journal of Black Psychology, 41(1), 75–89. CrossRef Thomas, A. J., & Blackmon, S. M. (2015). The influence of the Trayvon Martin shooting on racial socialization practices of African American parents. Journal of Black Psychology, 41(1), 75–89. CrossRef
go back to reference Varner, F., & Mandara, J. (2013). Differential parenting of African American adolescents as an explanation for gender disparities in achievement. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24, 667–680. CrossRef Varner, F., & Mandara, J. (2013). Differential parenting of African American adolescents as an explanation for gender disparities in achievement. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24, 667–680. CrossRef
go back to reference Voisin, D., Elsaesser, C., Kim, D., Patel, S., & Cantara, A. (2016). Relationship between family stress and behavior health among African American adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 2201–2210. CrossRef Voisin, D., Elsaesser, C., Kim, D., Patel, S., & Cantara, A. (2016). Relationship between family stress and behavior health among African American adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 2201–2210. CrossRef
go back to reference Walker, R., Francis, D. G., Brody, S. R., Cutrona, C., & Gibbons, F. (2017). A longitudinal study of racial discrimination and risk for death ideation in African American youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 47(1), 86–102. PubMedCrossRef Walker, R., Francis, D. G., Brody, S. R., Cutrona, C., & Gibbons, F. (2017). A longitudinal study of racial discrimination and risk for death ideation in African American youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 47(1), 86–102. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wang, M., & Sheikh‐Khalil, S. (2014). Does parental involvement matter for student achievement and mental health in high school? Child Development, 85, 610–625. PubMedCrossRef Wang, M., & Sheikh‐Khalil, S. (2014). Does parental involvement matter for student achievement and mental health in high school? Child Development, 85, 610–625. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wang, M., Hill, N. E., & Hofkens, T. (2014). Parent involvement and African- and European-American adolescents’ academic, behavioral, and emotional development in secondary school. Child Development, 85, 2151–2168. PubMed Wang, M., Hill, N. E., & Hofkens, T. (2014). Parent involvement and African- and European-American adolescents’ academic, behavioral, and emotional development in secondary school. Child Development, 85, 2151–2168. PubMed
go back to reference Wang, M. T., & Fredricks, J. A. (2014). The reciprocal links between school engagement, youth problem behaviors, and school dropout during adolescence. Child Development, 85, 722–737. PubMedCrossRef Wang, M. T., & Fredricks, J. A. (2014). The reciprocal links between school engagement, youth problem behaviors, and school dropout during adolescence. Child Development, 85, 722–737. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wilson, H. W., Woods, B. A., Emerson, E., & Donenberg, G. R. (2012). Patterns of violence exposure and sexual risk in low-income, urban African American girls. Psychology of Violence, 2, 194–207. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wilson, H. W., Woods, B. A., Emerson, E., & Donenberg, G. R. (2012). Patterns of violence exposure and sexual risk in low-income, urban African American girls. Psychology of Violence, 2, 194–207. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Wong, C. A., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2003). The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on Black adolescents’ school and socioemotional adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71, 1197–1232. PubMedCrossRef Wong, C. A., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2003). The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on Black adolescents’ school and socioemotional adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71, 1197–1232. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wood, D., Kaplan, R., & McLoyd, V. C. (2007). Gender differences in the educational expectations of low-income African American youth: the role of parents and school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 417–427. CrossRef Wood, D., Kaplan, R., & McLoyd, V. C. (2007). Gender differences in the educational expectations of low-income African American youth: the role of parents and school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 417–427. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
African-American Mothers’ Socialization Strategies to Address Adolescent-related Academic Expectations and Risk Concerns
Auteurs
Nestor Tulagan
Jacquelynne S. Eccles
Publicatiedatum
27-02-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 4/2021
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-021-01922-6