When Parents Seek Perfection: Implications for Psychological Functioning Among Teens at High-Achieving Schools | mijn-bsl Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 11/2020

18-09-2020 | Original Paper

When Parents Seek Perfection: Implications for Psychological Functioning Among Teens at High-Achieving Schools

Auteurs: Kelsey Stiles, Steve S. Lee, Suniya S. Luthar

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 11/2020

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Although often considered to be at low risk for negative outcomes, there is replicated evidence that youth attending high-achieving schools experience clinically significant mental health problems that exceed national norms. However, relatively little is known about family correlates of adolescent socio-emotional development, including parental criticism and expectations. Using a sample of high school students (N = 710, mean age = 16.7 years, 45% female) drawn from a high-achieving school in a largely affluent area, this study investigated concurrent associations between adolescent perceptions of maternal and paternal criticism and expectations with their self-reported internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. To discern configurations of family environment based on separate ratings of maternal and paternal criticism and expectations, we employed person-centered, latent profile analysis. An empirically distinct class emerged consisting of families with elevated maternal and paternal criticism and expectations; this class concurrently reported the highest levels of internalizing and externalizing problems. These findings highlight the importance of parent-child relationships for offspring well-being and suggest that paternal achievement expectations may be particularly relevant among high-achieving youth. We consider these findings within the larger context of family factors and adolescent development among youth in high-achieving contexts, including the significant need to consider father-offspring relationship factors.
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school‐age forms & profiles: An integrated system of multi‐informant assessment. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school‐age forms & profiles: An integrated system of multi‐informant assessment. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
go back to reference Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2014). Auxiliary variables in mixture modeling: Three-step approaches using M plus. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 21(3), 329–341. CrossRef Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2014). Auxiliary variables in mixture modeling: Three-step approaches using M plus. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 21(3), 329–341. CrossRef
go back to reference Barker, E. D., Copeland, W., Maughan, B., Jaffee, S. R., & Uher, R. (2012). Relative impact of maternal depression and associated risk factors on offspring psychopathology. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(2), 124–129. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Barker, E. D., Copeland, W., Maughan, B., Jaffee, S. R., & Uher, R. (2012). Relative impact of maternal depression and associated risk factors on offspring psychopathology. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(2), 124–129. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Barnes, G. M., Hoffman, J. H., Welte, J. W., Farrell, M. P., & Dintcheff, B. A. (2006). Effects of parental monitoring and peer deviance on substance use and delinquency. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(4), 1084–1104. CrossRef Barnes, G. M., Hoffman, J. H., Welte, J. W., Farrell, M. P., & Dintcheff, B. A. (2006). Effects of parental monitoring and peer deviance on substance use and delinquency. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(4), 1084–1104. CrossRef
go back to reference Baumrind, D. (1991). Effective parenting during the early adolescent transition. Family Transitions, 2(1), 1. Baumrind, D. (1991). Effective parenting during the early adolescent transition. Family Transitions, 2(1), 1.
go back to reference Block, J. H., Block, J., & Morrison, A. (1981). Parental agreement- disagreement on child-rearing orientations and gender-related personality correlates in children. Child Development, 52, 965–974. CrossRef Block, J. H., Block, J., & Morrison, A. (1981). Parental agreement- disagreement on child-rearing orientations and gender-related personality correlates in children. Child Development, 52, 965–974. CrossRef
go back to reference Buckholdt, K. E., Parra, G. R., & Jobe-Shields, L. (2014). Intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation through parental invalidation of emotions: implications for adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(2), 324–332. PubMedCrossRef Buckholdt, K. E., Parra, G. R., & Jobe-Shields, L. (2014). Intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation through parental invalidation of emotions: implications for adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(2), 324–332. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cabrera, N. J., Fitzgerald, H. E., Bradley, R. H., & Roggman, L. (2014). The ecology of father‐child relationships: an expanded model. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 6(4), 336–354. Cabrera, N. J., Fitzgerald, H. E., Bradley, R. H., & Roggman, L. (2014). The ecology of father‐child relationships: an expanded model. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 6(4), 336–354.
go back to reference Chronis, A. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, Jr, W. E., Williams, S. H., Baumann, B. L., Kipp, H., & Rathouz, P. J. (2007). Maternal depression and early positive parenting predict future conduct problems in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Psychology, 43(1), 70. PubMedCrossRef Chronis, A. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, Jr, W. E., Williams, S. H., Baumann, B. L., Kipp, H., & Rathouz, P. J. (2007). Maternal depression and early positive parenting predict future conduct problems in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Psychology, 43(1), 70. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ciciolla, L., Curlee, A. S., Karageorge, J., & Luthar, S. S. (2017). When mothers and fathers are seen as disproportionately valuing achievements: implications for adjustment among upper middle class youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(5), 1057–1075. PubMedCrossRef Ciciolla, L., Curlee, A. S., Karageorge, J., & Luthar, S. S. (2017). When mothers and fathers are seen as disproportionately valuing achievements: implications for adjustment among upper middle class youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(5), 1057–1075. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cook, L. C., & Kearney, C. A. (2014). Parent perfectionism and psychopathology symptoms and child perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 70, 1–6. CrossRef Cook, L. C., & Kearney, C. A. (2014). Parent perfectionism and psychopathology symptoms and child perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 70, 1–6. CrossRef
go back to reference Coren, S. A., & Luthar, S. S. (2014). Pursuing perfection: Distress and interpersonal functioning among adolescent boys in single‐sex and co‐educational independent schools. Psychology in the Schools, 51(9), 931–946. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Coren, S. A., & Luthar, S. S. (2014). Pursuing perfection: Distress and interpersonal functioning among adolescent boys in single‐sex and co‐educational independent schools. Psychology in the Schools, 51(9), 931–946. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Dogan, S. J., Conger, R. D., Kim, K. J., & Masyn, K. E. (2007). Cognitive and parenting pathways in the transmission of antisocial behavior from parents to adolescents. Child Development, 78(1), 335–349. PubMedCrossRef Dogan, S. J., Conger, R. D., Kim, K. J., & Masyn, K. E. (2007). Cognitive and parenting pathways in the transmission of antisocial behavior from parents to adolescents. Child Development, 78(1), 335–349. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ebbert, A. M., Infurna, F. J., & Luthar, S. S. (2019). Mapping developmental changes in perceived parent–adolescent relationship quality throughout middle school and high school. Development and Psychopathology, 31(4), 1541–1556. PubMedCrossRef Ebbert, A. M., Infurna, F. J., & Luthar, S. S. (2019). Mapping developmental changes in perceived parent–adolescent relationship quality throughout middle school and high school. Development and Psychopathology, 31(4), 1541–1556. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ebbert, A. M., Kumar, N. L., & Luthar, S. S. (2019). Complexities in adjustment patterns among the “best and the brightest”: risk and resilience in the context of high achieving schools. Research in Human Development, 16(1), 21–34. CrossRef Ebbert, A. M., Kumar, N. L., & Luthar, S. S. (2019). Complexities in adjustment patterns among the “best and the brightest”: risk and resilience in the context of high achieving schools. Research in Human Development, 16(1), 21–34. CrossRef
go back to reference Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2014). A proposed framework for preventing perfectionism and promoting resilience and mental health among vulnerable children and adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 51(9), 899–912. CrossRef Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2014). A proposed framework for preventing perfectionism and promoting resilience and mental health among vulnerable children and adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 51(9), 899–912. CrossRef
go back to reference Flett, G.L., Hewitt, P.L., Nepon, T., & Zaki-Azat, J.N. (2018). Children and adolescents “flying under the radar”: Understanding, assessing, and addressing hidden distress among students. In Handbook of School-Based Mental Health Promotion (pp. 357–381). Springer, Cham. Flett, G.L., Hewitt, P.L., Nepon, T., & Zaki-Azat, J.N. (2018). Children and adolescents “flying under the radar”: Understanding, assessing, and addressing hidden distress among students. In Handbook of School-Based Mental Health Promotion (pp. 357–381). Springer, Cham.
go back to reference Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(5), 449–468. CrossRef Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(5), 449–468. CrossRef
go back to reference Glassman, L. H., Weierich, M. R., Hooley, J. M., Deliberto, T. L., & Nock, M. K. (2007). Child maltreatment, non-suicidal self-injury, and the mediating role of self-criticism. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(10), 2483–2490. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Glassman, L. H., Weierich, M. R., Hooley, J. M., Deliberto, T. L., & Nock, M. K. (2007). Child maltreatment, non-suicidal self-injury, and the mediating role of self-criticism. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(10), 2483–2490. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, S. H., & Garber, J. (2017). Evidence‐based interventions for depressed mothers and their young children. Child Development, 88(2), 368–377. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Goodman, S. H., & Garber, J. (2017). Evidence‐based interventions for depressed mothers and their young children. Child Development, 88(2), 368–377. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Hewitt, P.L., & Flett, G.L. (2002). Perfectionism and stress processes in psychopathology. In G.L. Flett & P.L. Hewitt (Eds), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 255–284). American Psychological Association. Hewitt, P.L., & Flett, G.L. (2002). Perfectionism and stress processes in psychopathology. In G.L. Flett & P.L. Hewitt (Eds), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 255–284). American Psychological Association.
go back to reference Hooley, J. M. (2007). Expressed emotion and relapse of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 329–352. PubMedCrossRef Hooley, J. M. (2007). Expressed emotion and relapse of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 329–352. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Howard, M. C., & Hoffman, M. E. (2018). Variable-centered, person-centered, and person-specific approaches: where theory meets the method. Organizational Research Methods, 21(4), 846–876. CrossRef Howard, M. C., & Hoffman, M. E. (2018). Variable-centered, person-centered, and person-specific approaches: where theory meets the method. Organizational Research Methods, 21(4), 846–876. CrossRef
go back to reference Kochanska, G., Brock, R. L., Chen, K. H., Aksan, N., & Anderson, S. W. (2015). Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: A longitudinal study from infancy to age 10. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(4), 721–734. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kochanska, G., Brock, R. L., Chen, K. H., Aksan, N., & Anderson, S. W. (2015). Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: A longitudinal study from infancy to age 10. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(4), 721–734. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Koestner, R., Zuroff, D. C., & Powers, T. A. (1991). Family origins of adolescent self-criticism and its continuity into adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(2), 191. PubMedCrossRef Koestner, R., Zuroff, D. C., & Powers, T. A. (1991). Family origins of adolescent self-criticism and its continuity into adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(2), 191. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Krause, E. D., Mendelson, T., & Lynch, T. R. (2003). Childhood emotional invalidation and adult psychological distress: The mediating role of emotional inhibition. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(2), 199–213. CrossRef Krause, E. D., Mendelson, T., & Lynch, T. R. (2003). Childhood emotional invalidation and adult psychological distress: The mediating role of emotional inhibition. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(2), 199–213. CrossRef
go back to reference Lanza, S. T., Flaherty, B. P., & Collins, L. M. (2003). Latent class and latent transition analysis. In J. A. Schinka & W. F. Velicer (Eds), Handbook of psychology: Research methods in psychology, Vol. 2 (pp. 663–685). John Wiley & Sons Inc. Lanza, S. T., Flaherty, B. P., & Collins, L. M. (2003). Latent class and latent transition analysis. In J. A. Schinka & W. F. Velicer (Eds), Handbook of psychology: Research methods in psychology, Vol. 2 (pp. 663–685). John Wiley & Sons Inc.
go back to reference Leonard, N. R., Gwadz, M. V., Ritchie, A., Linick, J. L., Cleland, C. M., Elliott, L., & Grethel, M. (2015). A multi-method exploratory study of stress, coping, and substance use among high school youth in private schools. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1028. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Leonard, N. R., Gwadz, M. V., Ritchie, A., Linick, J. L., Cleland, C. M., Elliott, L., & Grethel, M. (2015). A multi-method exploratory study of stress, coping, and substance use among high school youth in private schools. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1028. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Lewis, C., & Lamb, M. E. (2003). Fathers’ influences on children’s development: the evidence from two-parent families. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18(2), 211–228. CrossRef Lewis, C., & Lamb, M. E. (2003). Fathers’ influences on children’s development: the evidence from two-parent families. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18(2), 211–228. CrossRef
go back to reference Lindsey, E. W., & Mize, J. (2001). Interparental agreement, parent‐child responsiveness, and children’s peer competence. Family Relations, 50(4), 348–354. CrossRef Lindsey, E. W., & Mize, J. (2001). Interparental agreement, parent‐child responsiveness, and children’s peer competence. Family Relations, 50(4), 348–354. CrossRef
go back to reference Lund, T. J., & Dearing, E. (2013). Is growing up affluent risky for adolescents or is the problem growing up in an affluent neighborhood? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(2), 274–282. CrossRef Lund, T. J., & Dearing, E. (2013). Is growing up affluent risky for adolescents or is the problem growing up in an affluent neighborhood? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(2), 274–282. CrossRef
go back to reference Luthar, S. S., & Barkin, S. H. (2012). Are affluent youth truly “at risk”? Vulnerability and resilience across three diverse samples. Development and Psychopathology, 24(2), 429–449. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Luthar, S. S., & Barkin, S. H. (2012). Are affluent youth truly “at risk”? Vulnerability and resilience across three diverse samples. Development and Psychopathology, 24(2), 429–449. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Luthar, S. S., Barkin, S. H., & Crossman, E. J. (2013). “I can, therefore I must”: fragility in the upper-middle classes. Development and Psychopathology, 25(4pt2), 1529–1549. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Luthar, S. S., Barkin, S. H., & Crossman, E. J. (2013). “I can, therefore I must”: fragility in the upper-middle classes. Development and Psychopathology, 25(4pt2), 1529–1549. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Luthar, S. S., & Latendresse, S. J. (2005). Children of the affluent: challenges to well-being. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(1), 49–53. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Luthar, S. S., & Latendresse, S. J. (2005). Children of the affluent: challenges to well-being. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(1), 49–53. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Luthar, S.S., & Kumar, N.L. (2018). Youth in high-achieving schools: Challenges to mental health and directions for evidence-based interventions. In Handbook of School-Based Mental Health Promotion (pp. 441–458). Springer, Cham. Luthar, S.S., & Kumar, N.L. (2018). Youth in high-achieving schools: Challenges to mental health and directions for evidence-based interventions. In Handbook of School-Based Mental Health Promotion (pp. 441–458). Springer, Cham.
go back to reference Lyman, E. L., & Luthar, S. S. (2014). Further evidence on the “costs of privilege”: perfectionism in high‐achieving youth at socioeconomic extremes. Psychology in the Schools, 51(9), 913–930. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Lyman, E. L., & Luthar, S. S. (2014). Further evidence on the “costs of privilege”: perfectionism in high‐achieving youth at socioeconomic extremes. Psychology in the Schools, 51(9), 913–930. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Martins, N., Mares, M. L., & Nathanson, A. I. (2019). Mixed messages: inconsistent parental mediation indirectly predicts teens’ online relational aggression. Journal of Family Communication, 19(4), 311–328. CrossRef Martins, N., Mares, M. L., & Nathanson, A. I. (2019). Mixed messages: inconsistent parental mediation indirectly predicts teens’ online relational aggression. Journal of Family Communication, 19(4), 311–328. CrossRef
go back to reference Masyn, K. E. (2013). Latent class analysis and finite mixture modeling. The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology, 2, 551–611. Masyn, K. E. (2013). Latent class analysis and finite mixture modeling. The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology, 2, 551–611.
go back to reference McCarty, C. A., Lau, A. S., Valeri, S. M., & Weisz, J. R. (2004). Parent-child interactions in relation to critical and emotionally overinvolved expressed emotion (EE): Is EE a proxy for behavior? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(1), 83–93. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef McCarty, C. A., Lau, A. S., Valeri, S. M., & Weisz, J. R. (2004). Parent-child interactions in relation to critical and emotionally overinvolved expressed emotion (EE): Is EE a proxy for behavior? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(1), 83–93. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social Development, 16(2), 361–388. PubMedCrossRef Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social Development, 16(2), 361–388. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. K. (2000). Integrating person‐centered and variable‐centered analyses: Growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(6), 882–891. CrossRef Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. K. (2000). Integrating person‐centered and variable‐centered analyses: Growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(6), 882–891. CrossRef
go back to reference National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019). Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity. Washington DC: The National Academies Press. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019). Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.
go back to reference Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: a Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(4), 535–569. CrossRef Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: a Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(4), 535–569. CrossRef
go back to reference Peris, T. S., & Miklowitz, D. J. (2015). Parental expressed emotion and youth psychopathology: New directions for an old construct. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 46(6), 863–873. CrossRef Peris, T. S., & Miklowitz, D. J. (2015). Parental expressed emotion and youth psychopathology: New directions for an old construct. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 46(6), 863–873. CrossRef
go back to reference Shafran, R., & Mansell, W. (2001). Perfectionism and psychopathology: A review of research and treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 21(6), 879–906. PubMedCrossRef Shafran, R., & Mansell, W. (2001). Perfectionism and psychopathology: A review of research and treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 21(6), 879–906. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sheeber, L. B., Davis, B., Leve, C., Hops, H., & Tildesley, E. (2007). Adolescents’ relationships with their mothers and fathers: associations with depressive disorder and subdiagnostic symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 144. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Sheeber, L. B., Davis, B., Leve, C., Hops, H., & Tildesley, E. (2007). Adolescents’ relationships with their mothers and fathers: associations with depressive disorder and subdiagnostic symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 144. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Soenens, B., Elliot, A. J., Goossens, L., Vansteenkiste, M., Luyten, P., & Duriez, B. (2005). The intergenerational transmission of perfectionism: parents’ psychological control as an intervening variable. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(3), 358. PubMedCrossRef Soenens, B., Elliot, A. J., Goossens, L., Vansteenkiste, M., Luyten, P., & Duriez, B. (2005). The intergenerational transmission of perfectionism: parents’ psychological control as an intervening variable. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(3), 358. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Smith, S. R. (2007). Making sense of multiple informants in child and adolescent psychopathology: a guide for clinicians. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 25(2), 139–149. CrossRef Smith, S. R. (2007). Making sense of multiple informants in child and adolescent psychopathology: a guide for clinicians. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 25(2), 139–149. CrossRef
go back to reference Suldo, S. M., Shaunessy, E., & Hardesty, R. (2008). Relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in high‐achieving high school students. Psychology in the Schools, 45(4), 273–290. CrossRef Suldo, S. M., Shaunessy, E., & Hardesty, R. (2008). Relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in high‐achieving high school students. Psychology in the Schools, 45(4), 273–290. CrossRef
go back to reference Widiger, T. A. (2011). Personality and psychopathology. World Psychiatry, 10(2), 103–106. CrossRef Widiger, T. A. (2011). Personality and psychopathology. World Psychiatry, 10(2), 103–106. CrossRef
go back to reference Yan, J., Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., & Feng, X. (2019). Trajectories of mother-child and father-child relationships across middle childhood and associations with depressive symptoms. Development and Psychopathology, 31(4), 1381–1393. PubMedCrossRef Yan, J., Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., & Feng, X. (2019). Trajectories of mother-child and father-child relationships across middle childhood and associations with depressive symptoms. Development and Psychopathology, 31(4), 1381–1393. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yates, T. M., Tracy, A. J., & Luthar, S. S. (2008). Nonsuicidal self-injury among “privileged” youths: Longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches to developmental process. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(1), 52. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Yates, T. M., Tracy, A. J., & Luthar, S. S. (2008). Nonsuicidal self-injury among “privileged” youths: Longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches to developmental process. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(1), 52. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J. L., & Beardslee, W. R. (2012). The effects of poverty on the mental, emotional, and behavioral health of children and youth: implications for prevention. American Psychologist, 67(4), 272. CrossRef Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J. L., & Beardslee, W. R. (2012). The effects of poverty on the mental, emotional, and behavioral health of children and youth: implications for prevention. American Psychologist, 67(4), 272. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
When Parents Seek Perfection: Implications for Psychological Functioning Among Teens at High-Achieving Schools
Auteurs
Kelsey Stiles
Steve S. Lee
Suniya S. Luthar
Publicatiedatum
18-09-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 11/2020
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-020-01828-9

Andere artikelen Uitgave 11/2020

Journal of Child and Family Studies 11/2020 Naar de uitgave