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29-02-2024 | ORIGINAL PAPER

Validation and Confirmation of the Equanimity Scale-16 in India and its Relationship with Well-Being

Auteurs: Shivangi Verma, Naval Garg

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 3/2024

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Abstract

Objectives

The present study explored the psychometric properties of the Equanimity Scale-16 (ES-16) in the Indian population. It also investigated the parallel connections between equanimity and spiritual well-being, recognizing equanimity as one of the qualities of highly spiritual beings.

Method

Three independent studies, with diverse sets of participants, were conducted using structured and established questionnaires. The first study evaluated the factorial structure of the ES-16 scale through exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using a sample of 648 Indian adults. The second study evaluated the reliability of the ES-16 with the help of Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability values based on a sample of 379 respondents. The convergent validity and discriminant validity were examined using average variance explained (AVE) values. The construct validity was examined through correlation analysis of the ES-16 scale with psychological distress, as well as a gratitude scale, given the traditional association of equanimity with spiritual well-being. The third study explored test–retest reliability of the scale based on a sample of 151 participants.

Results

The EFA yielded a 2-factor solution like the original ES-16 scale. The 2 factors—experiential acceptance and non-reactivity—could explain 61.12% of the total variance. The CFA confirmed the adequate factorial structure of the ES-16 scale. The acceptable Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability values (greater than 0.70) confirmed the reliability of the ES-16 scale. The convergent validity and discriminant validity were also confirmed in the second study. The results also reported a statistically significant positive association between equanimity and spiritual well-being.

Conclusions

The present study concluded that both factors of equanimity are necessary to experience equanimity, and absence of one renders the other difficult. It confirmed the psychometric properties of the ES-16 in the Indian population. The results hold considerable promise for advancing research in the field of mindfulness and well-being, as well as guiding the development of interventions aimed at promoting equanimity and fostering positive mental health outcomes in the Indian context.

Preregistration

This study or any work of the study is not preregistered.
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Metagegevens
Titel
Validation and Confirmation of the Equanimity Scale-16 in India and its Relationship with Well-Being
Auteurs
Shivangi Verma
Naval Garg
Publicatiedatum
29-02-2024
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 3/2024
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-024-02318-5

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